Uma pedra no caminho no combate ao Alzheimer: o Governo Federal americano

WAW

hempadao 11 março, 2017

Um estudo recente e muito promissor conduzido no ano passado no Salk Institute for Biological Studies mostrou que os extratos de maconha podem ser a chave no tratamento do mal de Alzheimer. O próximo passo: realizar testes em ratos e, caso o resultado se mostre positivo, iniciar as testagens em pessoas.

Porém, as pesquisas do Salk Institute se depararam com um grande obstáculo, mas um grande obstáculo nada científico: o Governo Federal. O instituto é localizado em La Jolla, na California (estado onde a maconha é legalizada) mas as pesquisas são financiadas por um fundo federal.

A maconha ainda permanece listada como Schedule I (Nível I) na tabela de substâncias controladas do Controlled Substances Act (CSA) de 1970. A substância é colocada nesse nível quando: não possui uso médico, tem uma segurança aceitável no uso sob supervisão médica e apresenta grande potencial para o abuso. Além da cannabis, outras duas drogas que também se encontram no Nível I de substâncias controladas são a heroína e o LSD. Por conta do dinheiro recebido pelo Salk Institute vir do National Intitutes Services (uma agência do U.S Department of Health and Human Services) o laboratório acaba ficando atrelado a normas federais, que proíbem a utilização de qualquer strain sem o registro adequado.

Os pesquisadores do Instituto conduziram a fase inicial da pesquisa sem a obtenção do registro de Nível I, para tanto precisaram trabalhar com dosagens baixíssimas de cannabinóides oriundos de cromatografias em metanol. Essa solução em metanol normalmente é utilizada para testagem de drogas em indivíduos como controle positivo e o Instituto purifica os cannabinóides dessas soluções para a utilização.

Visando iniciar o processo para adquirir maconha para os próximos estudos o laboratório precisava, primeiramente, aplicar para o DEA que acompanharia o processo junto ao US Department of Health and Human Service. Os pesquisadores do Instituto enviaram a aplicação em dezembro. Hoje eles continuam esperando a aprovação enquanto a pesquisa permanece parada.

“É tão claramente óbvio que essa planta precisa ser estudada nos mínimos detalhes e ainda nos deparamos com essa pedra gigante no caminho, travando os estudos” disse o Dr David Schubert, um professor do Instituto Salk e cientista sênior no estudo. “Já é complicado o suficiente angariar fundos mesmo quando não é necessário acatar dispositivos legais. É estranho e desmoralizante”.

Barbara Carreno, representante do DEA, disse que pode levar de três a seis meses para que a agência avalie a pesquisa e aprove a aplicação.

Uma evidência preliminar do estudo feito em neurônios humanos indicou que o THC e outros compostos presentes na maconha promovem a remoção de uma placa tóxica de proteína, amyloide beta, que se localiza dentro das células neurais, no cérebro dos pacientes acometidos pelo Alzheimer. Essa placa é a responsável pela a inflamação e posterior morte celular contribuindo assim com a perda de memória e debilidade mental.

Os cientistas do Insituto Salk acreditam que se forem capazes de usarem os compostos da cannabis podem rastrear e atacar o gerador da amiloide beta antes da pessoa apresentar os sintomas, com isso frenariam o processo inflamatório.

Tradução de parte da reportagem da CNBC



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