Torre de Moncorvo – A Capital Portuguesa da Cannabis!

OnJack

hempadao 8 julho, 2013

Nenhuma localidade portuguesa está mais ligada à cannabis que Torre de Moncorvo, vila transmon­tana que foi o principal pólo de produção e transformação do cânhamo durante os séculos em que esta cultura constituía uma prioridade nacional.

Na história de Portugal, a remota Torre de Moncorvo desde cedo mereceu uma atenção excepcional por parte da Coroa, devido à sua posição de baluarte fronteiriço, mas, sobretudo, por causa das extensas plantações de cânhamo cultivadas na Ribeira da Vilariça, uma veiga da região reputada desde tempos imemoriais pela sua fertilidade.

Sabe-se, por exemplo, que, na era medieval, entre as obrigações impostas aos habitantes de Moncorvo incluíam-se as atividades da cordoaria; assim, um documento de 22 de Novembro de 1387 trata da diretiva, "Que nenhum vizinho de Moncorvo seja escusado das velas e roídas". Por outro lado, estava determinado que os moradores das povoações vizinhas eram obrigados a trabalhar na reparação das muralhas da vila, enquanto "[o)s de Moncorvo são escusados de pagar para as fortificações do Freixo de Espada à Cinta, pela importância do posto que teem no Douro".

Segundo o historiador Telmo Verdelho, neste período da história Torre de Moncorvo foi "um centro importante relativamente a região transmontana, um local para onde convergiam, por estradas fiscalizadas, carreiros, almocreves e ou­tros transportadores do cânhamo, um local onde residiam vários letrados e muitos oficiais especializados que hoje chamaríamos técnicos".

Três séculos depois, a importância crucial da vila para o império português é confirmada pela publicação, em Agosto de 1656, de um decreto real, o Regimento que S. Magestade manda que aja na feitoria do Unho cânhamo da Villa de Moncorvo, impondo um regime apertado de controle à Feitoria dos Linhos Canhamos existente em Torre de Moncorvo desde 1617.

Dada a abundância local de gorduras vegetais resultantes da transformação do cânhamo, a cultura "que retempera todas as partes do Reyno" (nas palavras de um viajante seiscentista da região) está na origem de outra indústria local, a da saboaria. Segundo a Illustração Transmontana, "[a] tradição d’esta industria fabril em Moncorvo é antiga, e pelos annos de 1706 a fabrica do sabão molle, que nesta villa se obrava, dava provimeto a muitos lugares d’esta província, á cidade do Porto, á província do Minho e cidade de Lamego"

A 25 de Fevereiro de 1771, um alvará pombalino extinguiu a Feitoria do Linho Cânhamo de Moncorvo, por razões não muito claras, mas que podem relacionar-se com as restrições aplicadas pelo Tratado de Methuen (1703) à exportação de têxteis nacionais. Era o princípio da decadência irreversível de Torre de Moncorvo — passado um quarto de século, na ca­pital portuguesa do cânhamo operavam apenas oito cordoeiros.

O melhor emblema da relação ínti­ma entre o período áureo de Torre de Moncorvo e a cultura da cannabis é a Igreja Matriz da vila, a maior de Trás os Montes. Assim, a propósito da época inicial de construção deste templo, o Pe. Francisco Manuel Alves, em artigo publicado em 1908 na Illustração Transmontana, informa que, segundo determinados documentos do arquivo municipal, os rendimentos para a construção da Igreja Matriz de Torre de Moncorvo "provinham de terras no valle dâ Villariça, celebre desde tempos antigos pela produção e boa qualidade do linho cânhamo".

O OnJack publica, semanalmente, trechos da tradução do livro de Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears no Clothes.



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