Sintomas do autismo melhoram com o uso da maconha medicinal

Medicinal

hempadao 11 novembro, 2019

Pesquisa brasileira constatou benefícios no sono, na interação e na hiperatividade em grupo de 15 pacientes

Fazia mais de oito anos que a professora Clara Mont’Alverne, 52, não tinha uma noite bem-dormida, o que a fazia sentir-se à beira de uma ruptura emocional. Sua filha, Rebeca Mont’Alverne, hoje com 13 anos, tem diagnóstico de autismo desde os 3, e um dos sintomas mais graves era um distúrbio do sono que fazia com que a menina dormisse apenas meia hora em algumas noites, apesar da sonolência.

por Gabriel Rodrigues
em O Tempo

Ela já havia tentado remédios à base de melatonina (o “hormônio do sono”), entre outros, mas foi só o extrato da Cannabis (a maconha), que surtiu efeito – e, agora, é o único medicamento que Rebeca utiliza. “Hoje, minha filha dorme no quarto dela e eu durmo no meu quarto o sono dos justos”, diz Clara. “Antes, ela aproveitava muito pouco das terapias (como fonoaudiologia), porque estava com sono”, lembra.

Outros casos como o de Rebeca são objetos de estudo em uma pesquisa brasileira, publicada no final de outubro no periódico “Frontiers in Neurology”. O trabalho acompanhou o uso de medicamento à base de maconha por 15 pacientes de 7 a 18 anos, durante seis a nove meses. Entre eles, 14 tiveram melhoras nos sintomas.

“Redução de hiperatividade e de déficit de atenção, melhora na interação, diminuição de ataques de nervosismo e melhora no sono foram os aspectos mais observados”, diz o neurocientista Renato Malcher, um dos autores do levantamento.

Os pais dos pacientes preencheram mensalmente uma avaliação sobre a melhora notada em oito sintomas – pelo menos um foi amenizado em mais de 30% em nove dos pacientes. No caso dos que também tinham diagnóstico de epilepsia (comorbidade comum em autistas), a evolução foi ainda melhor.

O resultado corrobora outras pesquisas já publicadas. Em 2018, um estudo com 60 pacientes, publicado na “Neurology”, mostrou melhora nos sintomas em 61% deles.

O autismo é a segunda doença mais frequente nos laudos médicos de solicitação de importação de remédios à base de maconha na Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa). No terceiro semestre de 2019, foram feitos quase 2.800 mil novos pedidos de importação.

Modo de usar

O cérebro de pessoas que apresentam autismo e epilepsia sofre uma espécie de agitação excessiva. Uma das hipóteses é a deficiência de endocanabinoides – sistema de enzimas e receptores que regulam as reações da pessoa ao ambiente externo. É aí que entra a Cannabis: ela também tem canabinoides, que teoricamente podem suprir a falta no organismo.

Os mais conhecidos são o CBD e o THC. Quando se fala em remédios, o CBD é o mais citado, enquanto o THC é associado ao “barato” da maconha. Malcher explica que o CBD puro não é o bastante para amenizar sintomas do autismo – o THC também é usado, mas em proporção menor e insuficiente para “dar onda”. O estudo utilizou um medicamento norte-americano com proporção de uma parte de CBD para cada 75 de THC.



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