Seu Doce/Ácido era LSD ou NBOMe?

Portas da Percepção, Psicodelia

hempadao 25 outubro, 2013

por Fernando Beserra

Cada vez mais existe uma preocupação com casos de overdose, mesmo fatais, atribuídas ao uso de novas substâncias psiquedélicas. Tipicamente a grande mídia busca sensacionalizar novas substâncias, seguindo a linha do discurso de Guerra as Drogas, o qual não permite avaliações críticas, onde se pese os potenciais lados positivos e negativos da maioria dos psicoativos. No Brasil um caso recente, além do crack, é o do inexistente Oxi.

Ainda não presente no debate da mídia nacional, o caso em questão é outro. Trata-se de algumas fenetilamidas (mesmo tipo de substância, p.ex, que a mescalina) como o 25-NCI, 25-NC, todas com o final: NBOMe, também conhecida como N-Bomb e fora do Brasil como Pandora, C-Boom, Cimbi-82 e até pelo afetuoso nome: Dime (ZUBA, SEKULA e BUCZEK, 2012). Trata-se do palavrão químico: [2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine]. Os estudos sobre esta substância ainda são escassos e muito do que tem sido divulgado é de base absolutamente empírica, notadamente por usuários. A mídia, não a brasileira, divulgou recentemente a morte de um jovem de 17 anos em Sydney que supostamente consumiu um NBOMe. Em alguns países as substâncias têm sido vendidas pela internet com preços bastante baixos como U$ 1,50 por unidade (CALDICOTT, BRIGHT e BARRATT, 2013). Em países como o Brasil vários usuários com maior conhecimento tem identificado a presença maciça do NBOMe vendidos como LSD, particularmente na forma de blotters.

 

A síntese do 25C-NBOMe foi inicialmente reportada na literatura científica por Ettrup e outros. A substância deriva da fenetilamina 2C-C (4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxylphenethylamine) pela substituição de uma amina de nitrogênio por uma do grupo 2-methoxybenzyl (BOMe) (ZUBA, SEKULA e BUCZEK, 2012). O NBOMe não tem propriamente uma história de uso humano, o que leva a alguns riscos ainda desconhecidos. Apenas em 2010 ele tornou-se avaliável ao mercado por vendas online – e em 2011 começou a aparecer cada vez mais nas ruas e festas com o nome, substituto do LSD. Exatamente por este motivo, que um vídeo que gravei, ainda não havia identificado o NBOMe de forma mais ampla, pois de fato até 2010 – os artigos que utilizei datavam exatamente até este ano – não mostravam indícios claros deste novo acontecimento.

A ação do 25C-NBOMe resulta do fato dele ser um potente agonista para receptores do neurotransmissor serotonina 2A (5-HT2A), assim como também ocorre com o LSD. No entanto, os usuários têm identificado diferenças essenciais entre estas duas substâncias.

Vamos aos efeitos, em grande medida considerados a partir da experiência de usuários, o que também nos leva a alguns problemas metodológicos (era ou não 25CI-NBOMe?). A sugestão atual é que a dose ativa do 25C NBOMe seja de 200 à 1000 microgramas quando administrado pela via nasal ou sublingual (mais comuns), 50 a 500 microgramas quando fumado e com atividade bastante fraca quando consumido oralmente (engolido). Sugere-se aproximadamente que quando administrado pela via sublingual: de 100 a 200mg é uma dose baixa, 250 a 450 mg é uma dose média, 450 a 800mg é uma dose alta e acima de 800 é uma dose muito alta. Mas quantas microgramas ou miligramas tem um blotter no mercado negro? O auge do efeito costuma durar de 3 a 4 horas e a duração total prevista entre 4 e 10 horas. (ZUBA, SEKULA e BUCZEK, 2012). O EROWID adverte: Não se deve usar NBOMe por via nasal.

Nem tudo de ruim pode ser atribuído ao 25I NBOMe, que tem sido preferido por alguns usuários mesmo ao LSD verdadeiro. Seu efeito tem sido descrito como produzindo menos introspecção que o LSD, fortes efeitos sensoriais e visuais e até a expressão olho doce é ocasionalmente usada para descrever seus efeitos. Os efeitos são descritos as vezes por um início de náusea. (EARTH e FIRE EROWID, 2013). Existem muitas estórias já relatas de pessoas que tiveram delírios em doses acima de 1,5mg de 25I e 25C NBOMe, embora pessoas que tenham tomado mais que 2mg e não tiveram efeitos tão poderosos, mostrando que como outros psiquedélicos, seus efeitos variam largamente.(op.cit).

Algumas identificações de NBOMe em emergências hospitalares permitiu a observação, já bastante imaginável, de efeitos como taquicardia e hipertensão (ROSE, POKLIS e POKLIS, 2013).

Quanto ao ponto de vista da legalidade, o mesmo não foi incluso na Lista da ANVISA que regula as drogas proibidas no Brasil, no entanto, não me sinto confortável para analisar se os profissionais da segurança e da justiça enquadrariam o comércio ou produção de substância em outras classes já proibidas e criminalizaria produtores ou comerciantes.

Podemos considerar que já existe evidência de presença desta droga em âmbito internacional e, cada vez mais, por relato de usuários no Brasil torna-se claro que a família NBOMe chegou com força nas terras tupiniquins. Presença do NBOMe já foi confirmado, em blotters vendidos como LSD, até mesmo no mercado Polonês.

A primeira forma que os usuários têm identificado que uma substância não é LSD (ou apenas LSD) é pelo gosto dos blotters, na medida em que o LSD não tem gosto (ou tem um gosto muito levemente metalizado), tampouco cor (em caso do uso líquido), no entanto, existem outras formas de identificação um pouco mais trabalhosas (mas que antecipam o uso: http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_testing3.shtml). Os NBOMe tem um gosto intensamente amargo, o que tem levado a adulterações no gosto para simular um gosto de menta ou fruta.

Mais informações podem ser encontradas no site EROWID, embora muito ainda se encontre em plena discussão.

Como conclusão, podemos indicar que muito ainda deve ser estudado sobre este novo psiquedélico ou vários outros que tem surgido no mercado. Fato é que seu uso exige cautelas, na medida em que diferente de vários outros psiquedélicos de uso milenar, há hoje pouca evidência ou indícios do quanto seu uso pode ser danoso ao organismo ou mesmo fatal e em quais quantidades. O mercado negro, o proibicionismo, devem ser colocadas também em sua conta a proliferação destas modalidades de uso, pois seria muito mais seguro um uso regulado de psiquedélicos do que entregar, sem pesquisas, novos psiquedélicos para um público muitas vezes em desenvolvimento/formação. Um início de conversa poderia regulamentar não apenas o comércio de pslicibina, retirar da proibição a salvia divinorum (especialmente a planta, senão a salvinorina A para fins de pesquia), mas também avançar da psicoterapia com LSD e outros psiquedélicos.

Urge construir uma política menos nociva na área das drogas.

CALDICOTT, D. G. E.; BRIGHT, S. J; BARRATT, M. J. NBOMe – a very different kettle of fish… Med J Aust 2013; 199 (5): 322-323.

EROWID. http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/nbome/

ZUBA, D; SEKULA, K; BUCZEK, A. 25C-NBOMe – New potent hallucinogenic substance identified on the drug Market, Forensic Science International 227 (2013) 7–14, 2012.

http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/teen-jumps-to-his-death-after-150-drug-hit-20130606-2nrpe.html

ROSE, S. R; POKLIS J. L; POKLIS, A. A case of 25I-NBOMe (25-I) intoxication: a new potent 5-HT2A agonist designer drug. Clinical Toxicology. Mar. 2013, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 174-177.

EROWID, E; EROWID, F. Spotlight on NBOMes: Potent Psychedelic Issues. Erowid Extracts, Jul 2013. 24; 2-5. Online edition.



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