Que Sociedade prefere Construir Prisões ao invés de Escolas? [OnJack Ed. #219]

OnJack

hempadao 6 maio, 2013

Em 2000, os tribunais estão a esforçar–se por encher as celas das prisões — literalmente abarrota-las — mais depressa do que podem ser disponibilizadas. Em média, consumidores de drogas normalmente não violentos estão sendo detidos (dependendo das leis estaduais individuais) por períodos 2, 3 e 4 vezes superiores aos verificados em 1978, e 2, 3 e 4 vezes superiores aos que cumprem os prevaricadores violentos no respectivo estado.

Em Novembro de 1996, a Califórnia aprovou por 56% dos votos a Iniciativa sobre Maconha Medicinal (Proposta 215), para infelicidade das contínuas solicitações em sentido contrário feitas na rádio, TV, jornais e revistas pelos presidentes Ford, Carter, Bush e Clinton, juntamente com Nancy Reagan e o General Barry McCaffrey, que palmilhou o estado implorando aos californianos que rejeitassem a medida. Apesar dos seus esforços, a medida foi aprovada, dando origem a inúmeros clubes de cultivadores de cannabis, os quais foram quase todos encerrados, numa altura ou outra, pelo governo federal, em descarado desafio da lei estadual e da vontade maioritária do eleitorado da Califórnia! Hoje, a maioria destes clubes reabriu após terem incorrido em enormes despesas legais.

Em Novembro de 1998:

Os eleitores do Alaska, de Washington, do Oregon e do Arizona (estes pela segunda vez) aprovaram por larga maioria Iniciativas sobre Maconha Medicinal semelhantes à da Califórnia, a qual foi aprovada em Novembro de 1996.

O Nevada aprovou em 1998 a primeira de duas iniciativas eleitorais sobre maconha medicinal. (A lei do Nevada obriga as iniciativas a vencerem duas vezes.) A próxima iniciativa eleitoral decorrerá em Novembro de 2000.*

A maconha medicinal venceu também no Colorado, cujo secretário de estado se recusou, porém, a certificar a petição, alegando dúvidas sobre os métodos de angariação de assinaturas. Em Junho de 1999, o Supremo Tribunal dos EUA decidiu que a angariação de assinaturas decorrera legalmente. O secretário de estado do Colorado foi obrigado a submeter a iniciativa a um novo sufrágio no plebiscito de Novembro de 2000.**

Washington, D.C., sufragou uma Iniciativa sobre Maconha Medicinal muito abrangente. Porém, no final de Outubro de 1998, o representante Bob Parr (republicano da Geórgia) acrescentou uma emenda a uma lei de despesas extraordinárias orçada em 200 mil milhões de dólares, segundo a qual nenhuma verba de qualquer proveniência poderia ser usada para contar os votos da Iniciativa sobre Maconha Medicinal de Washington, D.C. Num episódio sem precedentes em toda a história americana, o representante Barr e os legisladores de pendor fortemente republicano, tanto da Câmara como do Senado dos EUA, ordenaram, de forma deliberada e consciente, que não fossem contados votos numa eleição americana. Incrível, inaceitável, impensável. Finalmente, um juiz federal ordenou que os votos expressos no Distrito de Columbia em Novembro de 1998 fossem contados em Setembro de 1999, quase um ano depois, e a medida foi aprovada oficialmente por 69 por cento dos votos. Em Outubro de 1999, o representante Barr pediu aos legisladores republicanos que voltassem a recusar-se a permitir a implementação da lei.

Em 30 de junho de 1997, a legislatura votou no sentido de acabar com 24 anos de descriminalização e recriminalizar a cannabis por tão pouco como a posse de uma semente. Em 3 de Junho de 1997, após ter promulgado "relutantemente" a lei, o governador "democrata liberal" Kitzhaber disse: "Acho que esta lei tem mais a ver com busca e confisco do que com uso de maconha". Em 4 de Junho de 1997, no acampamento do Encontro Nacional do Rainbow realizado no leste do Oregon, uma série de ativistas da maconha/cânhamo, incluindo eu próprio, Jack Herer, entraram com a verba necessária para contratar angariadores de assinaturas para um referendo destinado a impedir que a maconha fosse recriminalizada. O Oregonian de Portland, o maior jornal do Oregon, predisse inicialmente, a partir de sondagens que realizara, que perderíamos por uma margem de 2 a 1. O nosso objetivo era angariar assinaturas suficientes, cerca de 100.000, nos 87 dias seguintes, de forma a anular o voto da legislatura e a assinatura do governador, mantendo assim a cannabis descriminalizada até à eleição de novembro de 1998. O Oregonian, o maior jornal do Oregon, predisse originalmente, baseado nas suas sondagens, ue nós perderíamos por uma margem de 2 para 1! Na realidade, ganhamos por urna margem de 2 para 1, derrotando a recriminalização.

Em 2 de Novembro de 1999, o eleitorado do Maine aprovou, por uns esmagadores 61 por cento, uma iniciativa eleitoral destinada a legalizar a maconha medicinal no estado mediante a recomendação de um clínico. A maconha medicinal é agora legal em toda a Costa Oeste e a Costa Leste começa a seguir-lhe o exemplo.

No Alaska, a campanha "Libertem o Cânhamo no Alaska", liderada por Al Anders, apresentou no plebiscito de Novembro de 2000 uma iniciativa abrangente sobre cannabis/cânhamo/maconha, a qual legalizaria completamente todos os usos industriais, medicinais e nutricionais da cannabis e o seu uso pessoal, religioso ou recreativo por parte de adultos, em qualquer quantidade e por qualquer motivo. Simultaneamente, libertaria das cadeias e penitenciárias todos os prisioneiros por cannabis, e anularia os regimes de pena suspensa ou liberdade condicional por qualquer crime não violento relacionado com maconha, limpando o registro criminal dessas pessoas. Entregue em 7 de Janeiro de 2000, a petição foi certificada e incluída no plebiscito marcado para o início de fevereiro de 2000. Cabe ao eleitorado do Alaska decidir em Novembro de 2000.***

Em 25 de Abril de 2000, o Senado do Havai aprovou uma lei visando eliminar a nível estadual as sanções criminais contra pessoas seriamente enfermas que usam maconha com a aprovação do seu médico. É o primeiro uso deste tipo a ser promulgado pela legislatura de um estado ao invés de uma iniciativa eleitoral. O Governador do Havai, Benjamin J. Cayetano, promulgou a lei em 16 de Janeiro de 2000.

*A iniciativa foi aprovada, com 67% dos votos a favor e 33% contra. (N. do T.)
**A iniciativa foi aprovada, com 53% dos votos a favor e 47% contra. (N. do T.)
***A iniciativa foi derrotada, com 41% dos votos a favor e 59% contra. (N. doT.)

O OnJack publica, semanalmente, trechos da tradução do livro de Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears no Clothes.



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