Protegendo os direitos humanos de pessoas que usam psicodélicos

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 11 setembro, 2015

Teri Suzanne Krebs
Tradução de Fernando Beserra

Lancet Psychiatry Vol 2, Abril 2015, p. 294

Em um comentário recente Ben Sessa (1) explicou como a Guerra às Drogas pelo mundo impediu o desenvolvimento do tratamento psiquiátrico com psicodélicos como LSD (dietilamida de ácido d-lisérgico) e psilocibina (encontrada nos cogumelos mágicos). A proibição também teve resultados negativos para milhões de indivíduos que acreditam valer a pena utilizar psicodélicos em vários ambientes culturais fora daqueles da clínica.

Pessoas têm usado psicodélicos na prática espiritual por, ao menos, 5.700 anos, pré-datando todas as religiões organizadas (2). Cem anos atrás membros de grupos religiosos rivais realizaram campanhas contra o uso Nativo Americano de psicodélicos como o cacto peiote (2). No entanto, na década de 1950, cientistas preocupados usaram evidências e argumentos de direitos humanos para defender os usuários de peiote, levando a exceções legais para grupos específicos (2). Quando os psicodélicos alcançaram a sociedade maior nos 1960s, este também foi conhecido por pesquisadores das religiões e governantes como movimento espiritual (eg. The UK Home Office – 3).

Nos termos da Convenção sobre Substâncias Psicotrópicas da ONU de 1971, a Organização Mundial da Saúde teve a responsabilidade de avaliar a política internacional para as substâncias psicodélicas. Avaliação original da OMS considerou que os psicodélicos: “geralmente são usados na esperança de induzir uma experiência mística levando a um maior entendimento, pelos usuários, acerca dos problemas pessoais e do universo” (4). A avaliação da OMS não citou um único exemplo de dano que ocorra naturalmente de psicodélicos como psilocibina ou peiote e citou apenas um punhado de anedotas relacionadas ao LSD (4). Essa não foi, de forma alguma, uma avaliação de danos baseada em evidências.

Nos últimos 50 anos pensa-se que as pessoas usaram, ao menos, meio bilhão de doses de drogas psicodélicas. Cogumelos com psilocibina e outros psicodélicos são vendidos legalmente na Holanda. Baseado em extensivas experiências humanas é geralmente conhecido que os psicodélicos não levam a adição ou uso compulsivo e há pouca evidência para uma associação entre uso de psicodélicos e defeitos de nascença, dano cromossômico e transtorno mental duradouro ou efeitos tóxicos ao cérebro ou outros órgãos (2). Embora os psicodélicos possam induzir confusão temporária e tumulto emocional, hospitalizações e danos sérios são extremamente raros (2). De forma geral, psicodélicos não são particularmente perigosos quando comparados com outras atividades comuns (2).

Em 2016 a ONU terá um encontro especial em Nova York para definir o futuro da política internacional sobre drogas. O ex-Secretário Geral da ONU, Kofi Annan e a Comissão Global de Política de Drogas, dizem que nós devemos: “Certificar que as convenções internacionais sejam interpretadas ou revistas para acomodar… políticas de descriminalização e regulação” (5). Políticas nacionais e internacionais devem respeitar os direitos humanos de indivíduos que escolhem usar psicodélicos como atividade espiritual, cultural ou para o desenvolvimento pessoal.

Eu sou líder do conselho da EmmaSofia, uma organização sem fins lucrativos localizada em Oslo, Noruega, trabalhando para aumentar o acesso de MDMA (3,4-metilenodioximetanfetamina) de qualidade controlada e psicodélicos. Eu recebi fundos do Conselho de Pesquisa da Noruega (grant 185924).

REFERÊNCIAS

1. Sessa B. Turn on and tune in to evidence-based psychedelic research. Lancet Psychiatry 2015; 2: 10–12.

2. Krebs TS, Johansen PØ. Mental health and suicidal behavior in psychedelic users: A population study. J Psychopharmacol 2015; 29: 270–79.

3. Home Office, Department of Health and Social Security. The amphetamines and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Report by the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1970: 29–36.

4. Isbell H, Chrusciel TL. Dependence liability of “non-narcotic” drugs. Bull World Health Organ 1970; 43: 5–111.

5. Global Commission on Drug Policy. Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy 2011.
http://www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/ wp-content/themes/gcdp_v1/pdf/Global_ Commission_Report_English.pdf (accessed Feb 1, 2015).



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