Projeto no Chile planta maconha para uso medicinal

Clipadão

hempadao 30 outubro, 2014

Fonte: BBC

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Na maioria dos países do mundo, pedir a permissão de autoridades para cultivar 750 pés de maconha em uma área residencial da capital provavelmente acarretaria problemas.

Mas no Chile, o Estado acaba de concordar com este projeto.

Os pés de maconha começam a ser plantados nesta quarta-feira em La Florida, distrito de Santiago. A colheita será feita em abril do ano que vem, quando a planta será convertida em óleo e usada como analgésico por 200 pacientes com câncer.

É o primeiro projeto do gênero com o apoio do Estado na América Latina.

Grande parte das discussões recentes na região sobre o uso de cannabis se focou no Uruguai, que este ano se tornou o primeiro país do mundo a legalizar cultivo, venda e consumo da droga.

No Chile, as autoridades optaram por uma abordagem diferente, permitindo apenas o uso médico da planta.

"Não queremos entrar na discussão sobre o uso pessoal de maconha", disse Rodolfo Carter, prefeito de La Florida.

"Vamos nos ater à questão médica. A ideia é proporcionar às pessoas que sofrem de câncer um tratamento natural, mais saudável e barato".

O projeto será supervisionado pela Fundação Daya, uma organização sem fins lucrativos, e terá como desdobramento um estudo clínico sobre a eficácia da maconha como analgésico.

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"Queremos disponibilizar a maconha medicinal para todos, mesmo para os que não podem pagar", disse Nicolas Dormal, co-fundador da Daya.

"Mas, por ora, vamos nos concentrar nos primeiros 200 pacientes."

Chá de maconha

Além de aprovar o projeto em La Florida, as autoridades chilenas deram permissão a uma mulher para importar medicamentos feitos a partir da cannabis.

Cecilia Heyder foi diagnosticada com lúpus, uma doença do sistema imunológico, há cinco anos. Em seguida, 18 meses depois, ela teve câncer de mama.

Ela foi submetida a mastectomia, radioterapia e quimioterapia. Além disso, tomou dezenas de analgésicos convencionais, mas diz que os seus efeitos colaterais foram devastadores.

"A dor era insuportável", disse Heyder à BBC.

"Eu queria bater a cabeça contra a parede. Não conseguia andar, estava em uma cadeira de rodas. Meus filhos vinham ao meu quarto e eu nem sequer podia levantar-me da cama para beijá-los".

No ano passado, por desespero, Heyder comprou maconha e usou para fazer chá.

Leia mais: Usuários de maconha medicinal tentam driblar lei na Espanha

Ela afirma que o impacto foi imediato. Era muito mais eficaz do que qualquer um dos analgésicos convencionais que ela tinha tomado.

Heyder tentou comprar medicamentos à base da erva, mas não estavam disponíveis no Chile.

Então, ela pediu ao governo a permissão para importá-los.

Em agosto, conseguiu o sinal verde e, em setembro, os medicamentos chegaram da Europa.

Alto custo

Mas os medicamentos são caros – cerca de US$ 2.000 para o tratamento de um mês.

Heyder levantou o dinheiro por meio de uma campanha pública em mídias sociais, mas ela só tem o suficiente para três meses.

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Depois disso, ela afirma, terá que voltar a comprar maconha ilegalmente nas ruas, a não ser que o Estado chileno forneça medicamentos à base de cannabis de forma gratuita.

"Será que vou ser forçada a voltar para o mercado negro e a ter medo de ser presa?", perguntou ela.

"Eu não quero voltar a isso. Eu não quero viver com medo de abrir a porta da minha própria casa".

Tratamento da epilepsia

O projeto tem como objetivo dar a pacientes com câncer como Cecilia uma alternativa caseira – e barata – a medicamentos importados.

Se for bem sucedido, poderá ser expandido para fornecer remédio para pessoas que sofrem de outras doenças – principalmente epilepsia.

Lucas Riffo tem apenas seis meses de idade. Ele nasceu com epilepsia grave. Em certo ponto, tinha 300 convulsões por dia.

Seus pais, Jorge e Gabriela, deram-lhe medicamentos anticonvulsivos tradicionais, mas que não resolveram o problema do bebê.

Quando Lucas tinha menos de três meses de idade, os pais obtiveram maconha de forma ilegal e produziram óleo.

Jorge Riffo diz que a diferença na saúde de seu filho foi incrível.

"Começamos a dar a ele o óleo, em pequenas doses, obviamente", disse.

"Asseguramos que a frequência cardíaca e respiratória estava cuidadosamente monitorada, e ele está bem desde que passou a usar o óleo".

"Nós demos a ele um pouco mais e conseguimos evitar as convulsões por cinco, seis horas. Isso era impensável antes. Nenhum dos medicamentos tradicionais anticonvulsivos funcionou bem".

Ceticismo

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No entanto, nem todo mundo está convencido pelos benefícios da maconha.

Alguns médicos afirmam que a droga é viciante e pode causar problemas psicológicos.

A Organização Mundial de Saúde adverte que a maconha prejudica a aprendizagem e pode exacerbar a esquizofrenia. A OMS diz que ainda são necessárias mais pesquisas sobre os benefícios médicos da droga.

Há também uma questão de segurança. Em La Flórida, as autoridades ergueram uma cerca elétrica e com arame farpado em torno da área onde ficará a plantação para impedir que a cannabis seja roubada e caia nas mãos de traficantes.

Dormal, da Fundação Daya, diz que, apesar dos potenciais riscos de saúde e segurança, é preciso dar uma chance à maconha.

"A cannabis pode ter alguns efeitos colaterais negativos, mas são realmente insignificantes ao lado de outros medicamentos legais", disse.

"Se você colocar os efeitos negativos e positivos na balança, a cannabis é muito melhor do que a medicina tradicional".

Para Cecilia Heyder, que ouviu de médicos que teria apenas alguns meses de vida, a escolha é clara.

"A maconha não pôde curar-me de câncer ou lúpus, mas pelo menos alivia a dor", diz ela. "E isso é tudo que eu estou pedindo".



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