Pesquisas e História da Salvia divinorum

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 11 abril, 2013

por Fernando Beserra

Mais uma vez estamos aqui no Portas da Percepção a discutir sobre uma planta recentemente proibida no território brasileiro. Traremos neste post um pouco da história e pesquisas atuais sobre a “famigerada” Salvia divinorum. Se há uma certeza sobre esta planta tão singular é a da carência de estudos brasileiros sobre ela. E, para nossa surpresa, ignorando qualquer conhecimento científico (ou sua ausência!), a ANVISA colocou não apenas seu principal princípio ativo, a salvinorina A, mas também a própria planta no rol de substâncias prescritas no território tupiniquim. Certamente a ANVISA não levou em conta os resultados positivos já apresentados sobre seu uso atual.

O uso da Salvia divinorum é milenar, mas ela tem sido inclusa (e proibida) em políticas de drogas junto a drogas sintéticas projetadas contemporaneamente e que buscam imitar o efeito de substâncias prescritas por convenções internacionais. Um exemplo é o Japão (KIKURA-HANAJIRI et al, 2008). Outra identificação nos países onde ela não foi proibida é sua aproximação com as chamadas legal highs (“drogas” lícitas), embora seus efeitos sejam significativamente singulares.

Para começo de conversa, se queremos conhecer um pouco da Salvia d., recomendo a leitura do texto de Jonathan Ott que traduzi do Pharmacotheon, uma verdadeira Bíblia para os psiconautas (txt. referência para nosso resumido histórico de hoje). Como grande parte das substâncias psicoativas, a Ska-pastora contém outras funções além do seu uso psicoativo, a exemplo de ser usada para obtenção de um repelente de formigas (OTT, 2004). Mas foi apenas no séc. passado que seu uso psicoativo e ritual foi “des-coberto” pelos povos ocidentais.

J.B.Johnson, primeiro antropólogo que observou o uso dos fungos enteogênicos no México em 1938, mencionou a existência de uma infusão visionária preparada com folhas nomeada de “erva Maria”, já Bas Pablo Reko, outro pioneiro no estudo dos enteógenos, coletou mostras de folhas usadas em adivinhação na zona mazateca. Segundo Ott (2004) outra grande descoberta foi a de Robert Weitlaner, em 1952, de cerimônias de cura onde era utilizada a “erva de Maria”. O estudo se ampliou na década de 1960, especialmente pelas pesquisas de Robert Gordon Wasson e do químico Albert Hoffman. Na década de 80, Ortega e colaboradores conseguiram isolar das folhas de Salvia divinorum um composto ativo ao que denominaram “salvinorina”, sendo conhecido hoje como principal princípio ativo da Ska-pastora (Salvinorina A e B). Embora os próprios mazatecas não considerem a planta endêmica de Oaxaca, esta tem sido a consideração de alguns pesquisadores (CASSELMAN e HEINRICH, 2011).

Em 1962 R.G. Wasson resumiu suas descobertas sobre a etnofamarcognosia da Salvia divinorum na zona mazateca do México. O nome mazateca mostra sua influência católica, embora a Maria bíblica não tenha sido uma pastora nem figura pastoreia alguma na iconografia católica.

As folhas se costumam tomar em partes e os índios consomem sua dose mordiscando-las, embora o seu gosto amargo seja muito desagradável. Também era adotada a prática de triturar as folhas para extrair o suco, que dava as pessoas sem dentes (OTT, 2004). Para Jonathan Ott (2004) a prática de morder as folhas enroladas em um cigarro ainda é habitual em Oaxaca.

O uso não tradicional contemporâneo é bastante distinto do uso mazatecas. Casselman e Heinrich (2011) em análise de vídeos do youtube com o uso da salvia consideram que os videos indicam experiências positivas para os usuários. A pesquisa de Kelly (2011) parece apontar que adultos jovens que usam a Ska-pastora tem ao menos um conhecimento básico sobre o assunto, pois a maioria dos usuários entrevistados usou a planta em casa e não em locais como parques, bares ou festas. Alguns usuários descrevem a intensidade dos efeitos psiquedélicos de forma positiva, enquanto outros consideram a intensidade tão grande que os leva a não continuar o uso da substância (KELLY, 2011). A maioria dos jovens adultos não reportaram efeito negativa na saúde resultante do uso da salvia, embora alguns reportem certo nebulosidade mental (cloudiness) (KELLY, 2011). Igualmente os participantes da pesquisa não relataram efeitos negativos em seus pares. Kelly (2011) conclui que o perfil de baixo risco no uso da salvia por adultos jovens pode ser influenciado por seus status legal, o que nos leva a questionar se o atual status ilícito da salvia no Brasil pode produzir efeitos negativos. Em outro estudo (SUMNALL, 2011), com uma amostragem de 154 participantes (online survey), os usuários foram questionados quanto a seus comportamentos, conseqüência do uso, dentre outros. Sumnall (2011) como resultado indicou que há pouca evidencia de usos desfuncionais da S. divinorum e poucos relatos de consequencias adversasdo uso, bem como não há evidencia que usuários exibiriam mais esquizotipia.

Encontramos um único estudo, de 2009, onde os autores acreditaram ser o primeiro caso publicado de psicose persistente atribuída ao desencadeamento por uso de Salvia d., entretanto, o estudo carece de método, sendo uma breve descrição de caso clínico. Não é esclarecido quanto tempo o sujeito ficou em crise, se usava outros psicoativos, etc.

Retornando a história e etnografia, para Jonathan Ott (2004) o estudo etnográfico mais completo da ska pastora é de Valdés e seus colaboradores, no qual descrevem o uso do suco de Salvia divinorum em doses de 20-80 pares de folha, aproximadamente 50-200 gramas; Enquanto alguns autores como Bigwood (1978) consideram a Pastora como enteógeno por excelência, outros autores a assemelham a maconha como na pesquisa de Albertson e Grubbs no Journal of Psychoactive Drugs de 2008. O uso de Salvia d., com receptores singulares no cérebro, ainda é instigante aos pesquisadores. Seus efeitos, embora muito intensos, não atingem todas as pessoas, mesmo em altas doses.

De todas as pesquisas restam duas certezas:

– Ainda há muito a ser pesquisado desta planta tão particular.

– A proibição desta planta no Brasil é injustificada e possui enormes potenciais negativos.

Kikura-Hanajiri R et al. Analytical Data of Designated Substances Controlled by the Pharmaceutical affairs Law in Japan. Yakugaku Zasshi, Jun. 2008. P.971-979.

KELLY BC. Legal Tripping: a Qualitative Profile of Salvia divinorum Use Among Young Adults. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2011. Jan-Mar; p. 46-54.

OTT, J. Pharmacotheon: drogas enteogénicas, sus fuentes vegetales y su historia. Madri: La Liebre del Marzo. 2004.

SUMNALL, H. R et al. Salvia divinorum use and phenomenology: results from na online survey. J. Psychopharmacol. Nov. 2011. p. 1496-507.



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