Os Mil e Um Segredos de Fátima – O Uso do Haxixe pelos Fatimidas

OnJack

hempadao 10 setembro, 2013

Místico sufi atingindo o êxtase. Detalhe de iluminura de manuscrito persa do século XVI.A nossa causa é um segredo contido num segredo, um segredo bem protegi­do, um segredo que só serve a um segre­do, um segredo velado por um segredo.
— Ja’far al-Sadiq (m. 765), VIo
Imam fatimida

Lendo os historiadores nacionais sobre a época da fundação de Por­tugal, fica-se com a ideia de que os mouros que então habitavam as re­giões entre o Douro e o Algarve existi­ram principalmente para levar valen­tes traulitadas dos nossos antepassa­dos. Noções simplórias como esta, se bem que estimulem uma certa auto-estima coletiva, têm o inconveniente de reduzir o passado a uma fantochada literal, quando, pelo contrário, a riqueza e complexidade da História é tal que chega a desafiar a interpretação – como nos permitem constatar, se nos dermos ao trabalho de os analisar mais a fundo, os povos a quem cha­mamos distraidamente mouros.

Quando falamos em mouros esta­mos a referir-nos às tribos berberes Macemuda e Zenaga, que em 711 invadiram a Península Ibérica a partir do Norte de África. Estas populações eram de obediência maioritariamente fatimida, um movimento político-religioso originado no Magrebe cujos seguidores se consideravam herdeiros espirituais de Fátima, a filha de Mao­mé, e enquanto tal legítimos represen­tantes da fé islâmica revelada pelo Profeta.

Basicamente, o fatimismo era uma teologia de índole messiânica que favorecia a religião interior e individual, alegando que a leitura alegórica do Corão "abre as portas à espiritualida­de, aos segredos da gnose e só está ao alcance dos iniciados" — um enten­dimento que se encontra nos antípo­das do professado pelo islão ortodoxo (sunismo), que impõe uma leitura li­teral dos textos sagrados e rejeita todo o misticismo.

Nota: Dado que na era medieval as diversas cor­rentes heréticas islâmicas quase não se distin­guiam entre si, neste texto usam-se de forma intermutável com fatimismo os termos ismaelismo, chiismo e sufismo.

A época de maior proeminência fatimida no Oriente foi o Califado Fatimida do Cairo (959-1171), que "marcou o islão pela criatividade in­telectual e artística, e pela tolerância religiosa". Os fatimidas medievais viveram porém em con­flito permanente com o islão legalista, por vezes devendo organizar-se em confrarias secretas e guerrilheiras. "Os séculos de luta entre os fati­midas e os ortodoxos sunitas (X-XII) foram a única época de criatividade científica e cultural do islão (…). Passado esse desafio [com a supressão dos fatimidas], instalou-se no islão o obscurantismo e o pasmo, até hoje".

Ora sucede que entre as técnicas ini­ciáticas usadas pelos místicos islâmi­cos medievais contava-se o consumo de haxixe, que "estava muito divulgado entre os fatimidas" devido ao seu efeito de "elevar a imaginação até atin­girem uma beatífica tomada de cons­ciência das alegrias do mundo futuro", e por ser "inspirador das mais selva­gens especulações panteístas, as mais desordenadas fantasias metafísicas, as mais incríveis visões e êxtases, as mais variadas alucinações"

Outras técnicas iniciáticas fatimidas referidas na literatura são a recitação ou repetição exausti­va (lihikr), a dança e a sodomia.

O mais certo mesmo é que o haxixe fosse o principal meio usado pelos fatimidas para atingir a Iluminação; con­siderações sobre o sufísmo medieval

como "os efeitos da iniciação tradu­zem-se por um caudal de visões" e "o iniciado nesse grau começa a ver coisas" são consistentes com as experiências induzidas fiavelmente pela cannabis psicoativa. Acresce ainda que estes místi­cos não sentiam pudores quanto aos meios a utilizar para vislumbrar o Oculto, pois "[para os sufis] a expe­riência visionária pode ser o único cri­tério de perfeição espiritual". Os seus inimigos, esses, nunca tiveram dúvidas sobre a questão — "Quanto aos seus pretensos êxtases e visões, é o efeito do haxixe ou cânhamo indiano, drogas proibidas pela religião," lê-se num libelo anti-sufi publicado pelas autori­dades iranianas contemporâneas.

Pintura do século XIX representando a universidade de al-Azhar, no Cairo; fundada pelos fatimidas hashashin em 970, é a mais antiga do mundo ainda em funcionamento.A conexão dos fatimidas com o ha­xixe é tão íntima que os dois termos chegam a ser sinônimos — assim, a mais notória seita fatimida oriental, a Ordem dos Irmãos da Sinceridade (ou da Pureza), cuja existência Marco Polo revelou à Cristandade, era conhecida no islão por hashashin, os consumido­res de haxixe. Sob o efeito do haxixe, dizia-se, os iniciados nesta ordem ti­nham visões do Paraíso, que os inspi­ravam a obedecer cegamente aos seus chefes, executando com zelo suicida as missões terroristas e de espionagem que lhes eram confiadas. Tão temida era a seita pela sua eficácia na execução de assassinatos políticos que, ao lati­nizar-se, a palavra hashashin originou o termo "assassino"

Os hashashin estão na origem da conspiração dos Iilurninatí, na versão desta sociedade secreta congeminada pelo romancista e ensaísta Robert Anton Wilson; ver O Livro dos llluminati (Via Optima, Porto, 1999).

E foi como "os Assassinos" que a confraria fatimida-hashashin se tornou lendária, embora as suas atividades ultrapassassem largamente a arte de eliminar líderes sunitas e cristãos. Com basee em Alamut, uma fortaleza inexpugnável situada junto ao Mar Cáspio, no atual Irã, a seita tinha por missão antes de mais combater a ignorância, considerada responsável pela sub­missão do povo ao literalismo sunita. Neste espírito, os hashashin criaram uma rede de escolas de "estudos gerais" (madrasas), as quais serviram de mo­delo às universidades europeias, e compilaram a enciclopédia Rossaila, con­siderada a primeira súmula do saber humano. O maior líder hashashin foi o Imam Hasan i-Sabbah (1090-1124), mitificado nas crônicas cristãs medie­vais como o Velho da Montanha.

"Entre os seus, a ordem [dos hashashin] tam­bém era conhecida por Os que pregam a verdade interior (batinitas), Os que se sacrificam (fidai-yun) e Os que ensinam". Em Os Templários na Formação de Portugal, Paulo Alexandre l.oução consi­dera: " [É] evidente o papel destas elites árabes, nomea­damente os mestres sufis e os assassinos, na transmissão do saber clássico perdido. Fo­ram um elo da cadeia hislórica".

Sabe-se ainda que, no decurso das Cru­zadas, a ordem dos Templários estabeleceu contatos com as facções fatimidas do oriente, em particular com os hashashin, os quais "causaram nos cristãos uma forte impressão de simpa­tia" De fato, os supos­tos Infiéis revelaram–se irmãos espirituais:

"O ismaelismo podia passar por uma seita cristã gnóstica: a imamologia [culto dos Imams] é conversível numa cristologia de coloração gnóstica, e Fátima a Resplandecente corresponde a Maria; a escatologia e o messianismo são idênticos numa e noutra religião". Dado o secretismo envolvido, poucas certezas há sobre a extensão das rela­ções entre as duas confrarias; mas chega a falar-se numa "cavalaria ecu­mênica’ englobando os cavaleiros cris­tãos e os cavaleiros do islã (que eram os hashashin), uma nova versão dos Cavaleiros do Graal". Certo é que "con­luio com os islâmicos" foi a acusação mais grave lançada contra os templá­rios aquando do seu julgamento pelo rei francês Filipe o Belo, que conduziu à extinção da ordem em 1314.

É de notar que os hashashin e as suas técnicas iniciáticas antedatam de vários séculos a Ordem do Templo, que foi fundada por volta de 1118, em Jerusalém, depois dos cruzados terem conquis­tado a cidade aos fatimidas. A influência destes na nova confraria pode ter sido seminal; assim, em Portugal Razão e Mistério, o filósofo nacionalista António Quadros refere as "eni­gmáticas relações dos templários com os ismae­litas da Palestina, em especial com a organização mais ou menos secreta dos Assaci ou Assacine (…) sobre a qual a Milícia Cristã parece ter sido moldada na sua hierarquia e composição" (itálico nosso). Quanto ao papel do haxixe no desocultar do mysterium tremendum, os fatimidas tê-lo-ão revelado aos templários? Esta questão, ape­sar de óbvia e pertinente, não é abordada pelos historiadores; aparentemente, tal heresia é admissível apenas no âmbito da ficção histórica — e Umberto Eco, em O Pêndulo de Foucault, romance sobre o Segredo dos Templários, refere OS rituais "que os Templários efetuavam sob a influência do primeiro segredo que tinham aprendido no Oriente, o uso do haxixe". A ser assim, terá a mística templária sido influenciada por experiências visionárias com haxixe vividas pelos cruzados? É o que sugerem certas inspira­ções obtidas pelos templários na Palestina, as quais tresandam a motes do movimento "paz e amor" dos anos 60, quando o consumo de ma­rijuana se disseminou entre a juventude ociden­tal: "Instruídos provavelmente pelos fatimidas do Cairo, os templários conceberam a possibili­dade de um universalismo religioso pacifista"

O OnJack publica, semanalmente, trechos da tradução do livro de Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears no Clothes.



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