O que há de verdade e exagero sobre os benefícios do canabidiol

Ciência, Medicinal

hempadao 5 agosto, 2019

Pesquisa feita no Reino Unido revelou que alguns produtos com CBD contêm muito pouco do ingrediente anunciado

As vendas do extrato de cannabis conhecido como canabidiol(CBD) praticamente dobraram nos últimos dois anos no Reino Unido. Mas alguns dizem que os produtos com CBD não são tudo aquilo que afirmam ser.

Fonte: Época Negócios

Juntamente com vendedores de renome, o rápido crescimento da indústria atraiu os chamados “caubóis do CBD” – oportunistas que tentam lucrar rapidamente – de acordo com Mark Reinders, presidente da associação canábica European Hemp Industry Association.

Existem dois compostos principais encontrados na cannabis – o CBD e o THC (tetrahidrocanabinol). Ao contrário do THC, o CBD é legal, não “dá barato” e, no Reino Unido, está disponível em lojas de rua e na internet.

A estimativa é que cerca de 250 mil pessoas no Reino Unido recorram regularmente ao CBD para tratar doenças em geral, aliviar a ansiedade, problemas de sono, dores crônicas etc.

Mas o que há nesses produtos?

O CBD é comumente encontrado na forma de óleo a ser borrifado sob a língua ou como líquido para ser usado em dispositivos vaporizadores.

Com a ajuda de celebridades como Kim Kardashian, que fez um chá de bebê com o tema CBD em abril de 2019, ele também é encontrado em produtos de batom a homus, de cappuccinos até água com gás.

Uma pesquisa recente do Centre for Medical Cannabis, a única associação da indústria de produtos de uso médico feitos à base de cannabis no Reino Unido, testou 30 produtos anunciados como ricos em CBD, comprados em lojas físicas e online.

Constatou-se que quase metade (45%) tinha níveis mensuráveis ​​de THC, tornando-os tecnicamente ilegais no Reino Unido.

Os pesquisadores também descobriram a presença em sete produtos do solvente diclorometano, que pode causar chiado no peito e falta de ar em níveis acima dos limites considerados seguros.

Alguns produtos com CBD também contêm muito pouco do ingrediente anunciado.

Uma amostra comprada em uma conhecida rede de farmácias não tinha nada de CBD e estava sendo vendida por mais de 50 libras (cerca de R$ 235).

Apenas 38% dos produtos testados tinham níveis de CBD em até 10 pontos percentuais a menos do que a proporção anunciada na embalagem. Outros 39% tinham menos de 50% de CBD do que a proporção indicada.

Não há exigência legal para que esses produtos sejam testados, embora algumas empresas afirmem que fazem testes rigorosos.

O professor Saoirse O’Sullivan, da Universidade Nottingham, recomenda que os consumidores procurem marcas que possam fornecer um certificado de análise de seus produtos.

Charlotte Caldwell tornou-se uma defensora do acesso à cannabis medicinal (contendo CBD e THC) depois de lutar para obtê-la para seu filho Billy, que tem epilepsia grave.

Charlotte Caldwell tornou-se defensora do acesso à cannabis medicinal depois de lutar para obtê-la para seu filho Billy, que tem epilepsia grave (Foto: CHARLOTTE CALDWELL/ BBC)Ela lançou sua própria linha de produtos ricos em CBD chamada Billy’s Bud, mas encerrou a produção por não poder rastrear exatamente o que havia neles.
Ela achava que tinha sido “ingênua” e queria que os produtos de CBD fossem mais bem pesquisados ​​e mais claramente regulados.
Quais são os benefícios à saúde anunciados pelos vendedores?

A menos que tenham licenciado os produtos como medicamentos, os vendedores não podem prometer benefícios à saúde.

Apesar disso, mais e mais pessoas no Reino Unido estão procurando produtos com CBD na crença de que irão aliviar sua ansiedade, problemas de sono e dores.

Caldwell diz que tem “centenas, talvez milhares” de pacientes e pais estão procurando-a com dúvidas sobre o uso de CBD – em alguns casos, para condições graves e crônicas.

Uma busca simples no Instagram mostra diversas postagens de vendedores e promotores de produtos com CBD com promessas de aliviar a dor, melhorar o humor e até mesmo ser uma “alternativa eficaz aos antidepressivos”.

A Agência Reguladora de Medicamentos e Produtos de Saúde do governo britânico entrou em contato com 180 marcas desde 2016 devido a preocupações de que eles estavam fazendo propaganda não autorizada sobre o CBD.

Para anunciar benefícios à saúde, os fabricantes precisam licenciar os produtos pela Agência Europeia de Medicamentos.

Apenas o Epidiolex, um medicamento feito de CBD usado para prevenir convulsões, iniciou este processo. Ele está perto de obter a autorização e já está sendo prescrito para pacientes do NHS (serviço nacional de saúde britânico) como um medicamento não licenciado.

A atriz de Good Place, Kristen Bell, disse que achou o CBD útil para controlar sua ansiedade (Foto: Getty Images/BBC)O Instituto Nacional para a Saúde e Excelência em Cuidados (Nice, na sigla em inglês) também está avaliando clinicamente a relação custo-benefício do Epidiolex para duas formas de epilepsia – síndromes de Dravet e Lennox-Gastaut. Ele tomará uma decisão sobre se, uma vez licenciado, deve ser prescrito integralmente no NHS.

O NHS não recomenda o CBD para quaisquer outras condições.

Quais são as evidências?

“O CBD tem sido usado para tratar muitas doenças para as quais sua eficácia ainda não foi testada”, segundo um estudo da Universidade Nottingham, publicado em fevereiro. E para aqueles que foram estudados em humanos “geralmente tem eficácia fraca ou muito fraca”, com a notável exceção das convulsões.

Há evidências pré-clínicas de que o CBD pode aliviar a dor e a inflamação em camundongos, mas isso não foi confirmado em humanos. Testes em humanos conduzidos até agora tiveram pequenas amostragens, produzindo resultados mistos.

A sonolência é um efeito colateral conhecido, portanto, o CBD pode ter algum resultado quando se trata de problemas relacionado ao sono.

Quanto à ansiedade, há algumas evidências de estudos controlados que podem ser eficazes em doses de cerca de 300mg de uma só vez. Nas lojas físicas, um produto contendo 250 mg pode custar cerca de 50 libras (R$ 235).

Esses estudos analisaram o tratamento de sintomas de curto prazo antes de eventos provocadores de ansiedade, como falar em público. O uso diário de CBD para gerenciar os sintomas de ansiedade contínua não foi estudado.

No entanto, uma rápida pesquisa no Google traz à tona sites sugerindo a medicação prescrita para ansiedade usando o óleo de CBD.

E há preocupações de que consumidores ainda mais casuais estejam sendo roubados.

O professor O’Sullivan aponta que produtos inovadores como os cappuccinos e sorvetes de CBD, frequentemente vendidos a um preço alto, têm tão pouco CBD neles que “simplesmente não há possibilidade de ter qualquer efeito biológico”.

Isso, diz ela, pode levar as pessoas a ficarem sobrecarregadas, enquanto os vendedores capitalizam sua aura de bem-estar para elevar o preço.

Quanto à ideia de que o CBD pode ser uma solução para uma gama cada vez maior de problemas de saúde, ela diz que “o futuro parece ser muito diferente”.

Há sinais promissores para algumas condições, mas, por ora, os consumidores são aconselhados a agir com cautela, fazer suas pesquisas e esperar por mais evidências.



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