O Cuidado com a saúde das raízes das plantas

Cultivo Vital

hempadao 25 outubro, 2014

por Sergio Vidal, autor do livro Cannabis Medicinal Introdução ao Cultivo Indoor

helping-roots-develop

Quando cuidamos de uma plantação de maconha medicinal o que mais queremos e ver nossas queridinhas saudáveis, com folhas bem verdosas e cheias veias e serrilhados perfeitos, talos e caules grossos e, principalmente flores gordas e pegajosas. Mas, pouca gente lembra-se de colocar nessa lista de qualidades que buscamos um crescimento das raízes vigoroso e abundante. O fato é que pouca gente se lembra da parte da planta que fica escondida debaixo da terra. A maioria só pensa que a raízes são apenas um meio para alcançar o fim, que é dar água e nutrientes ao resto da planta, a parte que nos interessa mais. Mas não é bem assim.

As raízes são a parte principal do sistema de controle de crescimento das plantas. A planta só cresce alguma parte pra fora da terra quando cresceu pra baixo da terra a raíz que irá nutrir e sustentar aquela parte externa. Podemos ver isso claramente desde o início da vida das plantas. Quando as sementes abrem, nasce primeiro a radícula, a primeira parte da planta. A radícula toca o solo e começa a se desenvolver, criando rapidamente um sistema de raízes. A raiz penetra o solo antes do cotilédone sair pra dar a cara ao sol. Em uma semana a raiz de uma muda germinando pode chegar a até 30cm, dependo da variedade da planta e do meio de cultivo (profundidade dos vasos). Plantas que cresceram de sementes tendem a ter as raízes mais verticais, se aprofundando em linha reta para baixo. O ideal é então usar vasos mais profundos e menos largos. Plantas que vieram de clones tendem a ter um crescimento radicular em todas as direções, e o formato do vaso importa menos que o tamanho, nesses casos. Em ambos os casos, quanto maior o vaso, mais espaços as raízes terão pra se desenvolver e, por consequência, maiores serão as plantas.

rootbound4As plantas só crescem novos galhos e folhas, quando as raízes que irão cuidar dessas novas partes estiverem desenvolvidas. Vasos muito pequenos, portanto, podem impedir o crescimento normal da planta, fazendo as raízes ficarem atrofiadas e possibilitando o desenvolvimento de ananismo na planta. Muitas vezes vemos uma planta em um vaso pequeno, com estrutura de planta grande, folhas bem formadas, mas tudo pequeno, como um bonsai. Essa é a característica de planta que estão ocupando vasos menores do que o ideal. Plantas em crescimento saudável têm folhas grandes. As folhas pequenas são apenas as mais novas, que acabaram de nascer, mas que vão crescendo e se tornando maiores com o passar do tempo, até chegar a floração. Plantas nessas condições estão pedindo por um transplante para um vaso maior, para que haja um crescimento explosivo.

Outro fator que pode determinar no baixo desenvolvimento radicular é o tipo de solo utilizado. As plantas de maconha precisam de um solo com textura bastante aerada, por 3 motivos principais: 1) As folhas da planta respiram dióxido de carbono, como todas as plantas, mas raízes da maconha respiram oxigênio, e precisam dele em grande quantidade. Quanto mais foto e aerado for a mistura de solo, mais oxigênio as raízes terão para respirar 2; Solos com textura fofa, aerada, dificilmente ficam compactados com o passar dos meses de cultivo. Solos sem matéria aeradora geralmente ficam duros como pedras nos últimos meses do cultivo e, às vezes, as plantas chegam a morrer por isso; 3) Solos com textura fofa jamais vão empapar com água e provocar a morte das plantas por falta de oxigênio. Se o solo for bem aerado ele pode escorrer a água em excesso com facilidade em pouco tempo.

Mas como preparar um solo bem aerado? O primeiro cuidado é na hora de escolher quais substratos e em qual proporção você vai usar na composição do solo. É importante que ao menos 50% de todo o solo seja composto de algum substrato que dê uma textura aerada e permita o desenvolvimentos das raízes. Para esse fim pode ser usado fibra ou pó de coco, perlita, vermiculita ou turfa. É possível também usar areia, ou pedra pomes quebrada em pedaços pequenos. Alguns cultivadores usam solos com 100% desse tipo de substrato, não adicionando nenhum substrato orgânico que contenha nutrientes. Essa é uma das formas atuais de se cultivar de forma hidropônica. Mas é importante nesses casos ter medidores de pH, EC e bons fertilizantes para garantir uma boa nutrição. Considero que apesar desse tipo de cultivo dar resultados ótimos, o ideal é sempre fazer o cultivo em solos orgânicos, ricos em nutrientes e vou explicar porque.

Como disse desde o principio, as raízes são alma das plantas. São sua sustentação em todos os sentidos. São a base da estrutura do vegetal e também de todo seu metabolismo. Na natureza as plantas entram em simbiose com bactérias e fungos benéficos que colonizam as raízes e auxiliam no processo de transformar os nutrientes do solo em moléculas aproveitáveis pela planta. Os fungos mais conhecidos são os dos tipos endomicorrizas, ectomicorrizas e trichodermas. E as bactérias são de mais de 30 tipos diferentes. Em solos orgânicos elas têm maior chance se se proliferar naturalmente do que em solos inertes. Eu aconselho sempre o uso de terra vegetal, húmus de minhoca, farinha de osso e outros substratos na composição dos outros 50% do solo que não precisam ser de matéria aeradora. Acho que essa cama de nutrientes orgânicos faz bem à planta. Mesmo que ela precise de suplementação nutricional posterior, os nutrientes contidos no solo fazem com que elas jamais fiquem 100% sem nutrientes. Atualmente já há produtos no mercado disponíveis como boas opções de suplementação dessas bactérias e fungos. São produtos com uma concentração alta desses micro-organismos, que rapidamente colonizam o solo no qual são aplicados, gerando um ótimo crescimento das raízes e da planta como um todo, além de um melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes do solo.

Costumo comparar o cultivo usando solos orgânicos, ricos em nutrientes com cultivo em hidroponia, com uma metáfora simples. Imagine duas situações:

1) Uma pessoa fica 24hs por dia trancado numa casa, onde tem muitos alimentos que precisam apenas ser preparados. Vez ou outra você leva uma comidinha especial para ele, ou um suplemento nutricional específico. Mas, você pode até nem ir levar a comida que ele vai se virar bem com o que tem na casa. Pode não ficar gordinho, ter alguma deficiência de nutriente, ficar meio magro até, em casos mais graves, ficar subnutrido ou anêmico, mas não vai morrer de fome.

2) um homem fica 24hs por dia trancado numa casa onde não tem nenhum alimento. O único alimento que tem é o que você levar para ele. Nessa situação ele irá comer muito bem, pois não terá esforço algum de preparar e sempre terá ótimos alimentos, mas ficará muito mais dependente de você, não apenas de suas visitas para levar comida, mas também para ficar atento à exatamente o que ele precisa comer diariamente.

8-1943-rA situação número 1 representa bem o cultivo usando solos orgânicos. As raízes vão se virar bem com os nutrientes que estão contido no solo. O ideal, claro, é você ficar atento a sinais de fome. Suplementar a nutrição com fertilizantes adequados, controlar bem o pH, para que elas tenham uma dieta rigorosamente em dia. Mas, se você se descuidar, tiver que se ausentar por alguns dias, ou não tiver como usar aditivos ou fertilizantes, elas vão se virar bem também.

A situação número 2 é o cultivo em hidropônia. Em cultivos deste tipo toda nutrição da planta irá depender dos cuidados do cultivador na hora de preparar a solução nutritiva que irá ficar correndo no sistema. Qualquer carência tem que ser suprida de imediato. Qualquer oscilação de pH ou EC tem que ser corrigida com urgência. Tudo precisa estar perfeito não apenas com os sistemas estruturais da estufa (lâmpadas, exaustores, ventiladores, etc), mas também com o sistema de nutrição, hidratação e oxigenação das raízes (bombas de ar, água, termômetros, medidores de pH e EC). Mesmo com tudo rodando em perfeita harmonia, o cultivador deverá ficar atento e periodicamente inserir novos nutrientes na mistura, para suprir os que foram absorvidos pelas plantas.

Seja cultivando com solos orgânicos, ou com hidroponia é importante lembrar que a cannabis é uma planta de ciclo rápido, e por isso todos os métodos e técnicas para otimizar seu crescimento e a absorção de nutrientes são bem vindos. Quanto melhor a qualidade do solo, da água, dos nutrientes, dos cuidados e do meio de cultivo, melhores serão os resultados das colheitas. Mantendo o pH entre 6 e 6.8 e o EC entre 1,6 e 2,3, tudo ficará bem, pois elas poderão absorver bem os nutrientes e se manter saudavéis, seja qual for o meio de cultivo escolhido. Nisso é fundamental atentar para o papel centrar que o sistema de raízes exerce e procurar investir mais atenção e cuidado nessa parte do cultivo de maconha. Agora você já sabe a importância do sistema radicular no cultivo da planta, passe a olhar e cuidar também da parte da planta que não conseguimos ver, ela é tão importante quanto todo o resto.

Mais uma vez espero que tenham gostado do texto e, principalmente, que ele tenha ajudado a esclarecer mais a respeito da natureza da cannabis e do seu cultivo. Enviem suas mensagens, críticas, etc e, principalmente as dúvidas, preferencialmente com fotos, para o e-mail:hempadao@gmail.com

Até semana que vem! namastê!

Consulte outros artigos sobre cultivo: Clique Aqui  e aqui

*Antropólogo, Redutor de Danos e Cidadão Ativista engajado na construção de um Brasil com leis e políticas públicas sobre maconha e outras drogas mais humanas e eficientes.



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