Legalização da Maconha

Clipadão

hempadao 28 julho, 2014

Fonte: Folha de São Paulo

por Drauzio Varella

Álcool e fumo mostram que drogas legais nas mãos de particulares resultam em milhões de dependentes

Em duas colunas anteriores mostramos que os efeitos adversos da maconha não são poucos nem desprezíveis e que o componente psicoativo da planta pertence à classe dos canabinóides, substâncias dotadas de diversas propriedades medicinais.

Falamos das evidências de que fumar maconha pode causar dependência química –embora menos intensa do que a da nicotina, da cocaína ou dos benzodiazepínicos que mulheres e homens de respeito tomam para dormir.

No final, dissemos que o inegável interesse medicinal dos canabinóides não é justificativa para a legalização da droga, já que a imensa maioria dos usuários o faz com finalidade recreativa.

Acho que a maconha deve ser legalizada por outras razões. A principal delas é o fracasso retumbante da política de "guerra às drogas".

De acordo com o 2º Levantamento Nacional de Álcool e Drogas (Lenad), realizado em 2012 pelo grupo do Dr. Ronaldo Laranjeira, da Unifesp, cerca de 7% dos brasileiros entre 18 e 59 anos já fumaram maconha. Descontados os menores de idade, seriam 7,8 milhões de pessoas. Perto de 3,4 milhões haviam usado no ano anterior.

Como se trata de droga ilegal, poderíamos considerá-los criminosos, portanto passíveis de prisão. Quantas cadeias seriam necessárias? Quem aceitaria ver o filho numa jaula superlotada, porque foi pego com um baseado?

Legalizar, entretanto, não é empreitada corriqueira, como atestam as experiências do Colorado, Washington, Holanda e Uruguai.

Quem ficaria encarregado da produção e comercialização, o Estado ou a iniciativa privada?

Fundaríamos a Maconhabrás e colocaríamos fora da lei as plantações particulares? Seriam autorizados cultivos para consumo pessoal? Há amparo jurídico para reprimir a produção doméstica de uma droga legal? Por acaso é crime plantar fumo no jardim ou destilar cachaça em casa para uso próprio?

Quantos pés cada um teria direito de cultivar? E aqueles que ultrapassassem a cota, seriam obrigados a incinerar o excesso ou iriam para a cadeia? Quem fiscalizaria de casa em casa?

A que preço a droga seria vendida? Se custar caro, o tráfico leva vantagem; se for barata, estimula o consumo. Como controlar a quantidade permitida para cada comprador?

E os pontos de venda? Farmácias como no Uruguai, coffee shops como na Holanda, lojas especializadas ou nossas padarias que já comercializam álcool e cigarros?

Se a iniciativa privada estiver envolvida em qualquer fase do processo, como impedir o marketing para aumentar as vendas? A experiência com o álcool e o fumo mostra que deixar drogas legais nas mãos de particulares resulta em milhões de dependentes.

São tantas as dificuldades que fica muito mais fácil proibir.

Tudo bem, se as consequências não fossem tão nefastas. A que levou a famigerada política de guerra às drogas, senão à violência urbana, crime organizado, corrupção generalizada, marginalização dos mais pobres, cadeias abarrotadas e disseminação do consumo?

Legalizar não significa liberar geral. É possível criar leis e estabelecer regras que protejam os adolescentes, disciplinem o uso e permitam oferecer assistência aos interessados em livrar-se da dependência.

O dinheiro gasto na repressão seria mais útil em campanhas educativas para explicar às crianças que drogas psicoativas fazem mal, prejudicam o aprendizado, isolam o usuário, tumultuam a vida familiar e causam dependência química escravizadora.

Nos anos 1960, mais de 60% dos adultos brasileiros fumavam cigarro. Hoje, são 15% a 17%, números que não param de cair, porque estamos aprendendo a lidar com a dependência de nicotina, a esclarecer a população a respeito dos malefícios do fumo e a criar regras de convívio social com os fumantes.

Embora os efeitos adversos do tabagismo sejam mais trágicos do que os da maconha, algum cidadão de bom senso proporia colocarmos o cigarro na ilegalidade?

Manter a ilusão de que a questão da maconha será resolvida pela repressão policial é fechar os olhos à realidade, é adotar a estratégia dos avestruzes.

É insensato insistirmos ad eternum num erro que traz consequências tão devastadoras, só por medo de cometer outros.



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