Ketamina, o que é? [Portas da Percepção Ed. #281]

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 20 julho, 2014

por Jean Lefebvre

Depois de algumas experiências com Ketamina, uma substância a qual achei bastante interessante, decidi escrever um texto sobre, pois ao pesquisar pela internet vi que a ketamina é uma substância demonizada pela maioria das pessoas.

 

O cloridrato de cetamina é um anestésico dissociativo, desenvolvido em meados da década de 60, usada inicialmente com finalidades veterinárias. Embora não seja utilizado medicinalmente em seres humanos (mais por provocar efeitos alucinógenos nos pacientes), ele ainda é usado para algumas aplicações limitadas em humanos porque não é depressor da respiração ou da circulação. O cloridrato de cetamina é usado com fins recreativos primariamente sob a forma de um pó branco cheirado e para fins terapêuticos e psicodélicos, é frequentemente injetado por via intra-muscular (IM). Seus efeitos variam (em pequenas doses) de um suave entorpecimento, pensamento aéreo, tendência a tropeçar, movimentos desajeitados ou ‘robóticos’, sensações atrasadas ou reduzidas, vertigem, algumas vezes sensações eróticas, aumento de sociabilidade, e um interessante sentido de ver o mundo de uma maneira diferente até (em doses mais elevadas) dificuldade extrema de movimentos, náuseas, dissociação completa, entrada em outras realidades, a clássica experiência de quase morte (NDEs, na sigla em inglês), visões compulsórias, black outs, etc. A Cetamina também é conhecida por ser mais viciante psicologicamente que a maior parte das substâncias alucinógenas e não incomum ouvir sobre usuários que tomam uma vez ou mais por dia.

Dependendo da concentração, forma, e método de administração, as doses recreacionais da cetamina variam de 30 a 300 mg. A dosagem para a cetamina inalada varia amplamente de 15 a 200 mg. Com doses mais altas que cerca de 50 mg é aconselhável que o indivíduo esteja deitado. Quando administrada por injeções intra-musculares, a dosagem de cetamina varia geralmente entre 25 e 125 mg. O uso oral normalmente demanda maior quantidade, entre 75 a 300 mg. Em anestesia, se utiliza atualmente o isomero levógiro da cetamina na dose de 0,2 mg/kg para analgesia até 1 mg/kg para indução anestesica por via venosa e 4x essa dose para o mesmo efeito por via intramuscular. O cloridrato de cetamina, tem ação sobre receptores opióides.

Na medicina veterinária o seu uso como anestésico é generalizado, especialmente em animais pequenos, e é considerado indispensável pela Federação Européia de Veterinários.

Anestesia/sedação: usada para induzir e manter a anestesia. É usada para a sedação consciente em emergências pediátricas, endoscopias, cateterismos e radiologia. O seu efeito broncodilatador torna-a particularmente vantajosa em crianças que necessitem de ventilação para o status asthmaticus.

Analgesia: A analgesia pré-operatória com cetamina diminui a sensibilização aos estímulos dolorosos, diminuindo a necessidade de morfina depois da cirurgia. A cetamina intravenosa em baixa dose é um potente e seguro adjuvante à  analgesia opióide sistémica. Também poderá ser benéfica para o tratamento da dor crónica em adultos.

A ketamina é muito demonizada pelo fato de ser usada como anestésico para animais, é como se as pessoas pensassem que a droga é de uso exclusivo animal. A Ketamina é uma substância como todas as outras, tem seus efeitos distintos e ela não vai ser mais nociva só porque é usada como anestésico para animais.

E além de tudo, a ketamina também é usada como anti-depressivo, em indivíduos que sofram da síndrome da dor do complexo regional, que sofrem normalmente de depressão, baixas doses de cetamina podem ajudar a combater a depressão.



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