Garcia da Orta apresenta o Bangue ao Ocidente

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hempadao 23 julho, 2013

“E estes moços meus que, escondidamente de my, o tomão, dizem que lhes faz nam sentir os trabalhos, e estar prazenteiros e ter vontade de comer.”

— Garcia da Orta, sobre as experiências dos portugueses de Quinhentos com cannabis na Índia.

Por improvável que pareça, os europeus lidaram com a cannabis durante séculos sem se darem conta dos seus poderes psicoativos — aliás, até ao século XVI era-lhes completamente estranho o conceito de droga, entendida como agente alterador da consciência. Mas as coisas começaram a mudar devido à curiosidade e livre espírito de Garcia da Orta (1499?–1568), um médico e naturalista português que em 1534 viajou até Goa, então a capital do império português na Índia, ao que se julga para servir como "físico-mor" do respectivo vice-rei.

Nas três décadas seguintes à sua chegada ao Oriente, Orta compilou uma exaustiva relação das plantas "medicinais e úteis" indianas, que foi publicada em Goa em 1563 sob o título Colóquios dos Simples e Drogas e Cousas Medicinais da Índia. Considerada uma das primeiras manifestações da ciência experimental moderna, esta obra foi aclamada na Europa renascentista como a mais importante sobre flora medicinal desde o compêndio de botânica de Dioscórides, que fazia escola há 1500 anos — por esta razão, hoje os Colóquios de Garcia da Orta são talvez a única obra portuguesa a haver alcançado estatuto universal.

Os Colóquios são precedidos por um poema de Camões que constitui a primeira publicação de versos dos Lusíadas. Nele, Camões agradece ao Conde de Redondo, vice-rei da índia, a concessão do alvará necessário à publicação da obra de Orta, "[q]ue agora em luz saindo / Dará na Medicina um novo lume, / E descobrindo irá segredos certos / A todos os antigos encobertos".

Nos Colóquios, Garcia da Orta registra "os nomes, e a feiçam, e o uso pera que se usa" de plantas à época inexistentes na Europa (a manga, a cana-de-açúcar, o coco, o gengibre, a caneta, etc), as quais os portugueses espalhariam pelo mundo, e registra métodos e preparados terapêuticos então desconhecidos no Ocidente. Mas o que torna os Colóquios um marco fundador da ciência moderna é a obra espelhar a crença, então pioneira, de que a verificação e a experiência são as fontes verdadeiras da aprendizagem e do conhecimento. Diz o cientista Orta: "Eu não tenho ódio senão aos errores; nem tenho amor senão à verdade".

Estilisticamente, os Colóquios também têm muito que se lhe diga. A obra assume a forma de um diálogo entre dois médicos, o dr. Ruano e o dr. Orta, os quais são extensões da personalidade de Garcia da Orta, segundo a professora Selma de Vieira Velho, da Universidade de Nova Delhi, que acrescenta: "Acreditamos que se trata do primeiro uso registado do HETERÔN1MO na literatura portuguesa, um fenômeno que registrou um desenvolvimento brilhante no século XX através da obra poética de Fernando Pessoa". Assim, nos Colóquios, o heterônimo dr. Ruano representa o Garcia da Orta etnocêntrico tal como ele era ao chegar a índia, o dr. Orta sendo o próprio naturalista, que após três décadas de imersão na cultura indiana se tornara uma pessoa de espírito universalista.

E em parte alguma dos Colóquios este espírito científico de observação desapaixonada é mais notável do que quando Garcia da Orta se debruça sobre as drogas visionárias usadas na Índia, como o ópio, a datura e o bangue, um preparado psicoativo de cannabis* — as considerações que o naturalista português faz sobre estas substâncias e os seus efeitos revelam tal ausência de preconceito que hoje em dia, mais do que notáveis, elas dificilmente encontram paralelo.

*Embora o Conde de Ficalho, em nota à edição dos Colóquios que organizou em 1895, informe que o bangue é "hoje mais conhecido pelo nome arábico de haschisch", trata-se na realidade de preparados bebíveis ou comestíveis de cannabis ainda hoje confeccionados na índia.

Quanto ao bangue, Orta dedica-lhe um capítulo, o Colóquio Oitavo do Bangue, no qual explica "que cousa he ( ..) e pera que se toma, e como se faz" esta droga cujo uso, informa, era generalizado na índia: "E crede que pois isto [o bangue] he tanto usado e de tanto numero de gente, que nam he sem mysterio e proveito" (fica-se mesmo a saber que o bangue se vendia "na botica feito").

Nas quatro páginas do Colóquio Oitavo, Orta explica sem pudores por que razão o bangue era tão apreciado na índia ("E o proveito que disto tirão he estar fora de si, como enlevados sem nenhum cuidado e prazimenteiros, e alguns rir hum riso parvo"), referindo alguns dos seus efeitos específicos — afrodisíacos ("e já ouvi a muitas molheres que, quando hião ver algum ho­mem, Pera estar com choc[uarer’as e graciosas o tomavão"), soporíficos ("os grandes capitães, antiguamente acus-tumavão embebedarse com vinho ou com amfiatn [ópio], ou com este ban-sue, para se esquecerem de seus traba­lhos, e nam cuidarem, e poderem dor­mir") e estimuladores do apetite ("pera ter vontade pera comer, também pera isto lhe ajuda").

Mais informa Orta que os seus compatriotas na índia não se faziam ro­gados em experimentar os "effeitos de prazer" proporcionados pelo bangue: "rriuytos Portuguezes me disserão que o tomarão". Mas e quanto ao próprio Drta? Devemos acreditá-lo quanto nos diz, referindo-se ao bangue, que "eu nam o provei, nem o quero provar"?

Considerando que à época toda a obra candidata ao prelo devia sujeitar-se à férrea censura do Santo Ofício, a ques­tão a colocar devia ser outra: caso te­nha experimentado o bangue, poderia Orta dar-se ao luxo de ser honesto na matéria? E fica-se na dúvida se o tom com que o naturalista encerra o Coló­quio do Bangue corresponde ao que de facto lhe ia na alma: "[I]sto não he mezinha daquellas nossas, nem que lá aja, nam gastemos o tempo nisso".

Sugestiva da apetência que, na Índia do século XVI, muitos portugueses sentiam pela cannabis psicoactiva é uma carta escrita em 1561 pelo padre Anrique Anriques ao Geral da Companhia de Jesus, pedindo autorização para ingerir bangue. "[Qon-fesso que o clima desta terra (Ceilão] inclina ao mal e assim nos sentimos mais tentados da sensuali­dade. E porque há na fndia quem tome mezinhas [bangue] com que de todo mortificam a carne, de modo que apetite nenhum lhe vem da sensuali­dade, pergunto se não seria melhor eu tomar tais mezinhas. Prazerá Deus que tomando-as, elas me aproveitem". Para se atrever a impingir tamanha peta ao superior jesuíta, o padre Anriques contava decerto com a ignorância deste sobre os efeitos tudo menos mortificadores da cannabis.

Os Colóquios são notáveis ainda por marcarem a primeira vez que no Ocidente se usou o termo "viagem" com uma conotação para além da geográfica, estendendo-se a experiên­cias vividas em universos interiores. Diz a histórica passagem: "E o gram Soltão Badur [imperador do Gujara-te] dizia a Martim Affonso de Sousa [capitão-mor da marinha portugue­sa], a quem elle muito grande bem queria e ihe descubria seus secretos, que quando de noite queria yr a Portugal e ao Brasil, e à Turquia, e à Arabia, e à Persia, não fazia mais que comer um pouco de bangue". Pas­sariam três séculos até ser retomada a noção de "viagens" induzidas por dro­gas, por via dos haschischin Moreau, Gautier e Baudelaire.

Apesar de ter notado as semelhan­ças da planta do bangue com o cânha­mo, Orta considerou "nam ser isto li­nho alcanave" não só porque "a se­mente he mais pequena e mais não he alva como a outra", mas principal­mente devido ao facto da planta do bangue não ser usada na índia para produzir o linho "de que fazemos as nossas camizas". Orta não podia saber que estava a comparar as duas varie­dades de cannabis, a sativa, o familiar cânhamo, e a indica, que descobrira na índia — essa classificação só seria feita no século XVIII, precisamente a partir de dados compilados pelos primeiros cientistas da natureza, como Orta.

Para nossa (de Portugal) desgraça, o posfácio da história de Garcia da Orta é tristemente familiar. Segundo as crónicas, após a morte do naturalis­ta, a sua mulher confessou à Inquisi­ção que, apesar de ser católico confes­so, Orta sempre praticara em segredo a religião judaica. (Os pais de Orta eram cristãos-novos, tendo renegado a fé judaica para escapar ao exílio quando D. Manuel I expulsou os judeus de Portugal.) E, fazendo jus aos seus sinistros pergaminhos, a Inqui­sição ordenou não só que o cadáver de Orta fosse exumado e queimado na praça pública, mas que todos os exem­plares dos Colóquios fossem destruí­dos pelo fogo.

Afortunadamente para o patrimó­nio da humanidade, porém, o obscu­rantismo vigente em Portugal não conseguiu reduzir a cinzas "o fruto da­quela Orta" (na expressão de Ca­mões). Dado que para lá dos Pirinéus o conhecimento deixara de ser consi­derado obra do Demónio, logo no ano da morte do naturalista os Colóquios haviam sido traduzidos para latim por um botânico francês. Nas décadas se­guintes surgiram edições em italiano, francês e inglês e, no século XVII, o tratado de Orta tornara-se já obra de referência obrigatória da jovem co­munidade científica europeia. (Em Portugal, os Colóquios só seriam reeditados em 1895!)

E agora perguntamos nós, com o cinismo próprio do século XXI: que raio de motivo terá levado a mulher de Garcia da Orta a revelar à Inquisição a heresia do marido após o faleci­mento deste? Não será mais lícito pensar que a Igreja, à época vezeira nestas artes, extorquiu a confissão da viúva de Orta com o objetivo principal de destruir os Colóquios, nomeada­mente devido às descrições que a obra faz dos efeitos das drogas alucinogênicas? Estaremos perante a primeira campanha antidroga da história?



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