Enteógenos e Experiências Místicas! [Portas da Percepção #237]

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 12 setembro, 2013

por Catiusia

Esta semana no Portas da Percepção, apresento algumas breves considerações sobre o uso de enteógenos como precursores de experiências místicas e sua relação com as alterações de personalidade. Grande parte dos estudos científicos sobre o tema são um tanto céticos e cartesianos, devido à própria natureza da literatura científica. Mesmo assim, existe uma certa concordância de que enteógenos podem proporcionar experiências místicas transformadoras em pessoas que as vivenciam.

Inicialmente, cabe fazer uma descrição sobre as origens e significados dos termos “enteógeno” e “místico”. O termo "enteógeno" vem da literatura do campo da religiosidade, uma vez que a palavra tem significado literal de "perceber o divino dentro de si" ou "gerar a experiência de Deus em si". A palavra foi cunhada pela primeira vez em 1979 por Carl Ruck e um grupo de etnobotânicos. Ruck utilizou o termo enteógeno especificamente para designar as experiências religiosas de uso de substâncias psicodélicas. Assim, originalmente, a classificação de um psicodélico como enteógeno vem da forma como este é utilizado, e não da sua estrutura química. De acordo com Ruck, o processo de identificação de um psicodélico como um enteógeno é semelhante a classificar o vinho em uma cerimônia religiosa como um sacramento, ou seja, pelo seu uso como tal, ao invés de sua estrutura química ou sua possível utilização como alimentos, remédios ou drogas.

Já a palavra “místico” se refere a busca do conhecimento e ligação com a divindade, verdade espiritual ou com um deus, através da experiência direta ou intuitiva. O misticismo define-se como um tipo de religião que enfatiza a relação direta e íntima com a espiritualidade e consciência divina. O termo misticismo historicamente é empregado para se referir à experiências vivenciadas com divindades, nas mais variadas formas religiosas. É interessante notar que não importa a crença, seja cristã, pagã ou nas religiões orientais, o misticismo está presente com a mesma denotação: designar experiências profundas com o divino.

Diversos estudos acadêmicos sobre enteógenos são publicados nas áreas de teologia, psicologia, antropologia e disciplinas afins. Ainda que com uma certa discordância dentre a comunidade científica, há um consenso geral de que, sob certas condições, os enteógenos podem induzir experiências que são idênticas ou muito semelhantes às experiências místicas, atribuídas às práticas religiosas, como o jejum, a oração e a meditação. Na década de 1960, Walter Pahnke juntamente com Timothy Leary, conduziu um experimento onde dez estudantes receberam 30 mg de psilocibina e outros dez receberam um placebo ativo (niacina – vitamina B3) em um ambiente religioso, procurando entender se os enteógenos poderiam facilitar uma verdadeira experiência religiosa. Nove em cada dez dos alunos relataram experiências místicas ou religiosas, enquanto apenas um em cada dez no grupo placebo relataram o

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mesmo.

Normalmente, as experiências místicas são caracterizadas por qualidades subjetivas, quais foram listadas também em estudos de Walter Pahnke (1966): (1) um sentimento de unidade, ou seja, a transcendência do ego; (2) a objetividade e a realidade – a qualidade ou o sentido da verdade; (3) a transcendência do tempo e do espaço; (4) um sentimento de sacralidade; (5) sentimento profundo de positividade; (6) uma consciência de paradoxalidade; (7) uma sensação de que a experiência é indescritível; (8) uma transição da consciência e (9) as alterações positivas na atitude e/ou comportamento que são resultantes da experiência mística. Apesar de não representarem parâmetros mensuráveis e objetivos, o que no mundo científico é tido como absoluto, as observações resultantes de pesquisas empíricas têm sido consideradas por cada vez mais pesquisadores.

 

Uma visão mais cética da questão, mas não menos favorável, seria a de que experiências místicas tendem a ser associadas com indicadores de saúde mental positiva. Além disso, em comparação com pessoas que não tiveram experiências místicas, aqueles que as experimentaram teriam uma vivência prévia com mais elementos de positividade, assim como seriam pessoas que sentem um propósito ou direção em suas vidas. As pessoas que relatam experiências místicas intensas com enteógenos seriam também menos motivadas pela fama pessoal ou desejo de alta renda e ganhos financeiros, além de serem detentoras de um número mais expressivo de características altruístas.

Não está claro, porém, se as experiências místicas podem ajudar a produzir essas características ou se tais experiências intensificam os traços positivos já existentes na personalidade do usuário enteógeno. Mas parece haver um consenso, mesmo entre a comunidade científica, de que certas experiências com enteógenos podem alterar profundamente, e até permanentemente, a personalidade de quem as vivencia.



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