É verdade que sementes de plantas hermafroditas serão 100% fêmeas?´

Cultivo Vital

hempadao 26 outubro, 2013

por Sergio Vidal*

Olá leitor@s do Hempadão. É com muita alegria que anuncio que estou de volta ao blog. Entre 4 de outubro de 2011 e 31 de julho de 2012 eu ocupei um espacinho bacana por aqui, suprindo semanalmente a larica que vocês têm por informações sobre a erva, principalmente respondendo perguntas da galera sobre cultivo, redução de danos e uso medicinal. As pessoas me enviavam as fotos dos seus jardins e eu procurava fazer comentários para ajudar a melhorar no que fosse possível a relação entre elas e seus vegetais de estimação.

Foram meses muito prazerosos para mim, pois imagino que pude falar sobre temas que muitas pessoas têm interesse de saber mais, mas não têm onde procurar. Muitos cultivam cannabis não apenas por querer ter um vegetal doméstico, mas principalmente para poder controlar a origem e qualidade do medicamento ao qual precisa fazer uso. Infelizmente eu tive problemas pessoais que me impediram de cumprir com diversas responsabilidades importantes e missões de vida, dentre as quais, difundir boas informações pelo mundo. Graças ao Cosmo tudo foi, é e será por um propósito maior. Seja ele qual for, aqui estou, vivo, aos poucos retomando minhas obrigações, missões, projetos e, a partir de hoje, publicando novamente coisas sobre cultivo de maconha medicinal aqui na Hempada!

Essa semana vou falar a respeito de um tema que é origem de um equivoco bastante comum entre os cultivadores iniciantes. Essa não foi uma dúvida enviada por um leitor especificamente. Porém, já ouvi muitos amigos e pessoas próximas reproduzindo o engano de que as sementes oriundas de plantas hermafroditas são ótimas para cultivar pois é assim que se faz sementes feminizadas. Como essa é uma informação equivocada que já vi ser reproduzida por muitas pessoas, achei que seria um bom tema para recomeçar. Já ouvi de muitos amigos e conhecidos a afirmação de que uma planta fêmea, quando produz flores machos, se tornando hermafrodita, irá produzir sementes feminizadas. Ou seja, a ideia é que as sementes geradas a partir de um cruzamento com plantas hermafroditas irá criar sementes com quase 100% de certeza de serem plantas fêmeas. Essa é uma afirmação incorreta, baseada na má interpretação de como é o processo técnico de produção de sementes feminizadas. (Se você ainda não sabe a importância de controlar o sexo da cannabis, distinguindo entre machos e fêmeas, veja esse artigo http://hempadao.blogspot.com.br/2011/12/sexualidade-da-maconha-qual-diferenca.html)

Primeiro, é preciso dizer que não existem sementes 100% feminizadas. Quando começou a vender sementes feminizadas, na década de 1990, a empresa holandesa de criação de sementes, Dutch Passion logo percebeu que de uma safra de sementes feminizada é impossível estabelecer o padrão de 100% de fêmeas. No primeiro lote vendido o nome dado era “sementes 100% fêmeas” ou, como no orignal “100% female seeds”. Após as vendas se iniciarem, começaram a chegar cartas de alguns cultivadores reportando casos de plantas de origem em “female seeds” que aprensentavam bolas, ou seja, tinham flores macho. Logo se percebeu que era necessário melhorar o processo de produção das sementes e a primeira providenciar foi alterar o nome comercial do produto de “sementes 100% fêmeas”, para “sementes 100% feminizadas” ou apenas “sementes feminizadas”, para marcar que eram genéticas criadas com técnicas para maximizar as taxas de plantas fêmeas.

A Dutch Passion criou as sementes feminizadas a partir da observação do comportamento natural das plantas. No livro Marijuana Growers Handbook, de autoria do pesquisador Ed Rosenthal, Henk Van Dalen, fundador da empresa afirma que há muitos anos ele e os trabalhadores da DP já haviam notado que algumas plantas fêmeas, mesmo oriundas de seleções bem estavéis, ou mesmo clone de plantas fêmeas estavéis, podiam criar flores macho, a depender das condições ambientais e de fatores de stress. O fato é que a maioria das plantas fêmeas tem a capacidade de desenvolver flores macho, como uma espécie de mecanismo de preservação da natural e é justamente essa característica foi utilizada como gatilho para o desenvolvimento das genéticas feminizadas. Assim, em situações de stress, a planta poderia se auto-polinizar e perpetuar a espécie ao portar a capacidade de hermafroditar. O guru Soma, proprietário da Soma Seeds, afirma em seu livro “Organic Marijuana: Soma Style” que também desenvolveu sua linha de sementes feminizadas utilizando técnicas desenvolvidas a partir da observação deste comportamento natural das plantas.

Tanto a turma da Ducht Passion, quanto o Soma, perceberam que plantas fêmeas, quando sofriam situações de strees, conforme citamos acima, criavam flores macho. A partir daí ambos, e diversos outros criadores de sementes passaram a desenvolver suas próprias técnicas para produzir o stress necessário para que isso ocorra. É possível usar variados produtos químicos (ácido giberélico, nitrato de prata, por exemplo) aplicando de diferentes formas para provocar o crescimento de flores macho em plantas fêmeas. Algumas vezes é também utilizada a aplicação de hormônios para facilitar o processo. Soma e outros adeptos da linha orgânica/vegana do cultivo de cannabis medicinal preferem adotar métodos menos invasivos à natureza, digamos assim.

Enquanto criadores comos os da Duch Passion utilizam produtos químicos e hormônios, cultivadores adeptos do estilo próximo ao do Soma preferem stressar a planta com técnicas mais tradicionais. Soma, por exemplo, cita 2 formas bastante eficientes para produzir flores machos em plantas fêmeas. Ele deixa as flores amadurecerem continuamente, sem as colher, fazendo com que muitas vezes passem dias do ponto de colheita. Isso faz com que em algum momento, algumas dessas plantas produzam flores macho. Outra forma é na 5 ou 6 semana de floração, criar interrupções sistemáticas no período de escuridão, programando o timer para manter as luzes acesas em 2 ou 3 períodos diferentes ao longo da noite. Existem outras técnicas “menos invasivas” de provocar stress suficiente para criar flores macho em plantas fêmea.

O que os criadores que trabalham em bancos de sementes procuraram fazer foi testar diferentes métodos para produzir flores macho em plantas fêmeas. Então, eles pegaram as melhores fêmeas que tinham guardadas e as utilizaram para provocar o crescimento artificial de flores macho. Note que isso é feito apenas com as melhores plantas fêmeas, já fruto de décadas de seleção. São utilizados clones de plantas que já foram floridas diversas vezes, em diferentes condições, sem que tenham apresentado qualquer sinal de hermafroditismo. Antes de submeter a planta ao tratamento para promover o crescimento de flores macho, é importante garantir que ela tenha o mínimo possível da carga genética responsável pelo hermafroditismo. São plantas fêmeas, com potencial genético para o hermafroditismo sob relativo controle. Não são plantas hermafroditas. O processo parece fácil, mas exige controle extremo. Ao mesmo tempo que os criadore fazem cruzamentos e seleção, buscando aumentar as taxas de plantas fêmeas, é preciso manter a característica genética ao hermafroditismo sob controle. Essas empresas dedicam equipes, plantações inteiras para selecionar plantas que sejam resistentes ao hermafroditismo que possam ser usadas para experiências de criação de sementes feminizadas. Elas não usam plantas hermafroditas. Elas usam plantas cujo hermafroditismo é selecionado para estar fora do programa genético. Ou, pelo menos é assim que fazem as empresas mais sérias do ramo. É claro que, como em todos os ramos, existem todos os tipos de empresários e alguns certamente vão utilizar programas de seleção pouco criteriosos, genética com maior tendência ao hermafroditismo, tudo isso é possível e real.

Então, se você tem uma planta hermafrodita, o melhor a fazer é considerá-la como uma planta macho e arrancá-la antes que ela abra suas flores e fecunde todo seu jardim estragando o trabalho de meses. Ela não é uma fêmea que foi artificialmente tratada para produzir flores macho. Ela é uma planta hermafrodita, a qual essa característica é tão forte que se expressou sem que fosse preciso qualquer tratamento especial para provocar. Essa não é uma carga genética desejável num programa de seleção e, certamente, não resultará em sementes nem um pouco perto de serem 100% fêmeas.

O fato é que temos que admitir. Produzir sementes de qualidade é um trabalho para estudiosos de genética e seleção. É um trabalho para os mestres do cultivo e alguns raros gurus com habilidades muito especiais. Se o objetivo é economizar na compra de sementes, a melhor estratégia não é produzir sementes, isso é tarefa para profissionais, ou ao menos hobbystas em estágio avançado. Até avançar nos estudos, sua melhor saída é fazer uma pequena seleção e produzir clones! Estude sobre o tema: Clique Aqui

Espero que tenham gostado do texto e que ele tenha ajudado a esclarecer algumas dúvidas. Enviem suas mensagens e dúvidas, preferencialmente com fotos para o e-mail:

Até semana que vem, namaste!

Consulte outros artigos sobre cultivo aqui

*Antropólogo, Redutor de Danos e Cidadão Ativista engajado na construção de um Brasil com leis e políticas públicas sobre maconha e outras drogas mais humanas e eficientes.



202 respostas para “É verdade que sementes de plantas hermafroditas serão 100% fêmeas?´”

  1. Avatar Pedro disse:

    Olá, obrigado pelo teu texto, espero que você leia aqui apesar dessa shit storm que tem aqui nos comentários.
    Antes de começar um grow de verdade eu cultivei uma herma que brotou no meu vaso e uma irmã dela femea.
    Enfim, não sabia de nada, as sementes vieram numas flores gostosas que uma amiga comprou como Kunk Uruguaio Sativa.
    Minha duvida é, a primeira planta se auto fecundou e também fecundou a outra femea.
    Eu guardei as sementes das duas acreditando nessa informação de que as hermas geravam sementes fêmeas. Minha dúvida depois de ler teu texto é se as sementes que da fêmea podem ser boas.
    Obrigado

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