Convivendo com o calor e a seca em um jardim de Cannabis

Cultivo Vital

hempadao 24 dezembro, 2013

por Sergio Vidal

climatizador02Essa semana recebemos uma mensagem com fotos pedindo uma ajuda para salvar algumas plantinhas.

“Olá Hempadão! Moro no sertão de Pernambuco e nessa época do ano, assim como na maior parte também as temperaturas superam os 30 graus facilmente e a umidade relativa do ar também é bem baixa. Gostaria de saber se nessas condições é possível cultivar variedades com predominância Indica ao invés de sativa que já é adaptada ao clima? Abração. jah bless.”

Quando pensamos em quais as condições ideais para uma planta de cannabis, ou se ela pode ser cultivada em uma determina situação, devemos ter em mente que esses vegetais são como nós, seres humanos: gostam de temperaturas amenas e uma brisa agradável soprando na cara, mas sobrevivem em quase todas as condições do planeta, desde que recebam cuidados adequados. É claro que uma coisa é viver da forma ideal, quando podemos alcançar nosso máximo potencial sem muito esforço. Outra, totalmente diferente, é quando vivemos em um ambiente em condições pouco adequadas para nosso pleno desenvolvimento e temos que nos virar aqui e ali para conseguir sobreviver. Devemos ter em mente também que o calor pode ser um fator prejudicia que afete a planta em sua estrutura externa (folhas, caule, tronco, flores, etc) e suas raízes. Onde quer que o problema se instale ele certamente trará consequências

Se a planta vive num ambiente estável, climatizado, com comida e água em quantidade e qualidade adequadas, temperatura e umidade em níveis ótimos, ela viverá bem todo o período de crescimento e certamente irá responder com flores gordas e pegajosas. Uma planta que passa dificuldades durante o crescimento vegetativo terá problemas para completar seu ciclo e iniciar a floração, podendo inclusive não resistir ao processo e morrer antes de amadurecer completamente. O processo de produzir flores e frutos é algo que exige muito do metabolismo vegetal e consome uma grande quantidade de nutrientes específicos. Se houver carência desses nutrientes a planta pode não florir corretamente, produzir inflorescências muito magras e pouco resinadas, ou até mesmo não resistir às exigências deste período e morrer antes de completar seu ciclo. Não apenas os nutrientes são importantes, mas todos os fatores influenciam na saúde da planta em sua diferentes fases da sua vida. Solo adequado, Nutrientes, Água, Luz, ar fresco, temperatura e umidade adequados são os fatores que determinam o crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta. Nenhum deles isolado poderá favorecer o crescimento da planta. Eles estão intimamente relacionados e nenhum deles funciona bem se os outros não estiverem também em ordem. O que quero dizer é que de nada adianta ter uma estufa com uma lâmpada de 1000watts se não tem um bom ar condicionado trabalhando junto com um exaustor potente, ou ter uma estufa com meia dúzia de lâmpadas fluorescentes e dar às plantas grandes doses de fertilizante.

O calor é algo que afeta o metabolismo da planta alterando seu funcionamento normal. Calor é um termo que simplifica um ambiente com temperatura acima da ideal para o crescimento da planta. Plantas que vivem em ambientes muito quentes tendem a consumir maior quantidade de água. Primeiro porque haverá evaporação mais rápida da água que está no solo. Segundo, porque quando as plantas estão em ambientes onde a temperatura ultrapassa os 29/30 graus elas entram em estado de sobrevivência ao calor. Nesse estado elas desviam a energia utilizada para o crescimento da planta, produção de tecido vegetal, síntese de nutrientes, etc, focando todas as suas forças no funcionamento do seu sistema de regulação de temperatura interna. Em outras palavras, a planta usa a água para transpirar, do mesmo modo que nossos corpos usam nossa água para produzir suor e com isso promover a troca de calor com o ambiente e refrescar nossos organismos. É um mecanismo de sobrevivência.

A temperatura ideal para a cannabis é em torno de 24 C durante o dia e 20C à noite, o que é extremamente difícil de manter na maior parte do Brasil, especialmente durante as estações mais quentes do ano. Na prática, se as raízes jamais ficarem totalmente secas e desidratadas, o calor dificilmente matará uma planta. Porém, sobreviver não significa que ela crescerá com saúde e é praticamente impossível que uma planta que viva sob stress de calor e produza flores em quantidade e qualidade satisfatória. Plantas que recebem luz solar direta têm um crescimento ótimo, desde que o calor seja mantido sob controle. De nada adianta, por exemplo, ter uma planta a pleno sol de verão se ela não receber ar fresco o suficiente. Se o cultivo for ao sol, a maior parte das áreas tem muita ventilação. Mas sempre é possível utilizar ventiladores daqueles que têm gotejadores acoplados, que diminuem a temperatura do ambiente. Porém a função de umidificar o ambiente só deve ser usada durante o período vegetativo, para evitar que as flores se molhem e com isso fiquem sucetiveis ao mofo.

Em cultivos que utilizam lâmpadas como fonte de energia, em estufas climatizadas, conhecidos como cultivos “indoor”, o calor é um problema ainda mais frequente, especialmente no Brasil e outros países com clima predominantemente tropical, pois além do calor normal do ambiente é somado também o calor produzido com a(s) lâmpada(s). Porém em cultivos desse tipo o controle da temperatura é feito de forma muito mais fácil, pois é possível o uso de exaustores e aparelhos condicionadores de ar para resfriar as lâmpadas e a estufa, o que é muito difícil em cultivos com o sol.

Em cultivos com o uso da luz do sol não há muitas alternativas. Idealmente se construiria uma estufa de vidro, onde a umidade e a temperatura poderiam ser controladas utilizam condicionadores de ar, mas a luz solar passaria quase totalmente através dos vidros. É possível constuir estufas semelhantes utilizando algum tipo de plástico transparente que resista à chuva e ao vento.

Na foto abaixo uma greenhouse feita de garrafas pet.

popbottle1

Porém, as melhores estratégias para prevenir o stress por calor em cultivos utilizando o sol são: dar à planta o máximo de espaço para o crescimento de suas raízes, para que a planta possa ter diversificadas fontes de água onde buscar recursos nos momentos de aperto; Preferencialmente cultivá-las diretamente no solo, deixando-as crescer um pouco em vasos para depois transplantar para o chão, mas se for inevitável o uso de vasos, evitar os de cores escura que absorvem o calor, ou pintar todos de branco ou forrá-los com papel alumínio, para que reflitam ao máximo o calor e mantenham a temperatura das raízes amenas.

Para concluir quero afirmar que a melhor forma de prevenir o stress por calor é mesmo cultivando variedades que sejam adaptadas a climas semelhantes aos da sua região. Procure conhecer bem como é a umidade relativa do ar e a temperatura da região onde você mora e pesquise o acervo de todos os bancos de sementes muito bem antes de escolher qual a variedade de maconha irá fazer parte do seu projeto. A adaptação climática será fator funtamental para garantir colheitas ótimas e o primeiro passo nesse processo é escolher sementes de linhagens que tenham predileção por climas semelhantes às da região onde serão cultivadas. Se necessário, envie mensagens para os bancos consultado quais as variedades mais adaptadas as suas condições de cultivo, certamente eles terão satisfação em responder a um possível cliente.

Mais uma vez espero que tenham gostado do texto e, principalmente, que ele tenha ajudado a esclarecer mais a respeito da natureza da cannabis e do seu cultivo. Enviem suas mensagens, críticas, etc e, principalmente as dúvidas, preferencialmente com fotos, para o e-mail: hempadao@gmail.com

Até semana que vem! namaste!

Consulte outros artigos sobre cultivo: Clique Aqui  e aqui

*Antropólogo, Redutor de Danos e Cidadão Ativista engajado na construção de um Brasil com leis e políticas públicas sobre maconha e outras drogas mais humanas e eficientes.



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