Como plantar e colher um pé de maconha?

Ativismo, Carta Capital, Opinião

hempadao 27 junho, 2019

Poderia ser simples cultivar sua própria erva, mas no Brasil ainda é crime

por Cadu Oliveira / Ilustração Felipe Navarro

O debate pela descriminalização do porte e da legalização da maconha medicinal no Brasil é tão difícil que nem parece que cultivar a erva poderia ser tão fácil. Observando cada etapa da burocrática caminhada até a flexibilização da erva, até fica parecendo que estamos tratando de uma substância que carece extremo controle. Mas a cannabis nunca matou ninguém na história da humanidade. E mais, pode nascer ao ar livre, como faz sua espécie selvagem há milênios, desde muito antes de sonhar que um dia poderia ser proibida.

Os registros da maconha medicinal também são muito antigos. Atualmente, com a explosão da pesquisa sobre canabinóides e seu sistema endógeno, presente em cada um de nós, a ciência está cada vez mais amiga da cannabis. No entanto, todo mundo sabe o quanto a área médica é atrelada aos lobbys da indústria farmacêutica. Nesse sentido, médicos de todo o país já reconhecem o valor do THC e do CBD no tratamento de diversas doenças (muitas delas graves ou intratáveis de outras formas), no entanto, o CFM – Conselho Federal de Medicina, ainda assim, se posiciona de maneira contrária à legalização da cannabis medicinal no Brasil.

Então quer dizer, se você tem um caso de extrema necessidade, ainda não é permitido optar simplesmente por cultivar o seu medicamento. É preciso buscar autorização da ANVISA e importar o remédio. É claro que nem todo mundo tem tempo e dinheiro suficiente para fazer isso. E quem se arrisca a manter seu cultivo, avesso às ordens da lei, pode ser preso como traficante.

Estufas viram ‘laboratórios’ na chamada da manchete sensacionalista quando algum cultivador é capturado. Mas eles nunca explicam na matéria que todo aquele aparato só é necessário para esconder o flagrante da plantação aos olhos da “denúncia anônima”. Não fosse o terror do proibicionismo, os refletores poderiam ser o sol. Ao invés de barracas, poderiam cultivar em varandas, quintais, sacadas. O fluxo financeiro seria revertido. Ao invés de ir para o tráfico, iria para investimento em solo, vaso, fertilizantes.

Se Martin Luther King estiver certo em sua citação célebre que diz: “É nosso dever moral, e obrigação, desobedecer a uma lei injusta”, então acredito que não seja um ato hediondo colocar uma semente na terra, para colher relaxamento ou remédio.

Muitos maconheiros não sabem cultivar ou nunca viram uma flor de maconha. Da mesma forma, operadores da lei muitas vezes desconhecem a natureza da cannabis, ainda que sejam obrigados a reprimi-la conforme presente legislatura. Toda essa falta de informação é contraproducente ao convívio social. Por isso, mesmo sem que possamos cultivar, gostaria de dar uma luz a todos as etapas que seriam necessárias para se plantar e colher a maconha. O intuito é que, quem não tem ideia, perceba como se dá o processo. E fica fácil perceber que não deveríamos estar recorrendo a máfias armadas, nem a laboratórios da gringa, para ter acesso à ganja.

Semente, Galho e Folha

A maconha nasce da semente. Ou por clone, processo de reprodução por estaquia, muito normal em diversas outras plantas. De forma simples, é possível tanto germinar quanto clonar somente usando água. Quando começa a criar raiz, a planta vai buscar no solo e na luz suas fontes de energia para crescer. No Brasil, solos ricos e recursos naturais repletos de nutrientes são facilmente encontrados. É possível optar por um solo orgânico ou utilizar fertilizantes químicos que garantirão o desenvolvimento da planta.

Depois de evoluir para uma pequena muda, a ‘árvore’ deve seguir seu ciclo vegetativo. Esse período vai durar o tempo total em que a planta for submetida a um regime de luz que seja maior do que o seu tempo de escuro. Por exemplo, se estiver com uma luz ligada por 18 ou 24 horas sobre a cabeça dela. Ou se estiver numa época do ano em que bata sol por 16 horas durante o dia. Nesse estágio, a planta vai produzir somente galho e folha. Nada de psicoatividade.

Macho ou Fêmea?

Quando a planta começa a dormir por pelo menos 12 horas por dia, aí sim começa seu segundo ciclo, o da floração. Após essa transição, em aproximadamente vinte dias ela começa a mostrar o sexo. Se for fêmea, vai produzir flores com resina, onde se encontra o poder psicoativo da maconha. Se for macho, vai produzir pólen, que é responsável por tocar as inflorescências e produzir sementes.

No tempo de floração, que vai mudar entre cada variedade, ela vai se transformar totalmente. Podem ser de 60 até 135 dias, dependendo do tipo de cannabis, até o fim da floração. Os machos devem ficar pelo caminho, pois caso consigam polinizar as fêmeas, a produção de sementes vai acabar prejudicando o melhor desempenho das flores.

Hora de Colher

Se tudo der certo, no final da floração, cada galho da planta vai estar com uma flor densa e resinosa, pesando para o lado. Após três meses ou mais de carinho, é hora de passar a faca no caule e colocar a plantinha de cabeça para baixo, para secar. Daquele grande arbusto, somente as flores secas serão utilizadas. As folhas e galhos serão descartadas. Parece óbvio, mas em apreensões a polícia não respeita isso e toda a planta (quando não o vaso) são pesados juntos e incluídos como flagrante no inquérito.

Esse processo de secagem pode demorar de uma a duas semanas. Nesse processo, as flores vão eliminar toda água que estava armazenada nela, e estima-se que vai perder cerca de 70% de seu peso. Depois disso, cada flor é separada do galho e recebe uma limpeza chamada manicura, na qual os vestígios de folhas são eliminados. E pronto! As flores estão aptas a virar fumaça ou se tornar remédio de boa qualidade.

Tem algum processo laboratorial nisso? Vimos acima a descrição de algum ato que devesse ser considerado criminoso? Cultivar uma planta, colher uma erva, se tornar um problema de polícia e superlotar presídios é a prova cabal que não somos nós os mais ‘doidões’ dessa cena.

***** publicado originalmente, com outro título, no blog do Hempadão na Carta Capital



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