Cogumelos mágicos e Psilocibina! [PARTE 1]

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 1 julho, 2016

por Fernando Beserra .:.

A psilocibina, 4-fosforiloxi-N,N-DMT, é o princípio ativo encontrado nos, assim chamados, cogumelos mágicos, como o Psilocybe cubensis. No nosso organismo ela rapidamente é metabolizada em psilocina, substância também presente em vários cogumelos. É esta última a principal responsável por seus efeitos psicodélicos, isto é, que promovem a alteração geral de funções cognitivas como a atenção, o pensamento, o sentimento, a senso-percepção, a memória, além de alterações na volição. O Psilocybe cubensis, por sua vez, é um cogumelo pandêmico, ou seja, ocorre em todas as regiões tropicais, pelo menos onde existe o gado de tipo zebu (bos indicus). Os cogumelos do gênero Psilocybe e Stropharia são saprófitos, isto é, se alimentam de matéria orgânica em decomposição (LUZ, 2015). São psicodélicos indólicos, por possuírem um grupo pentextil associado a um anel benzeno. Tal como ocorreu com o LSD e o LSA, foi o químico suíço Albert Hofmann [1906-2008] quem isolou e identificou, a partir de amostras de Psilocybe mexicana cultivadas por Roger Heim, os princípios ativos dos fungos psicodélicos (LUZ, 2015). Tratam-se de substâncias farmacologicamente seguras, tanto no que se refere à sua toxicidade, quanto a seu potencial de dependência. Não são conhecidas doses fatais. Seus riscos, de forma semelhante a diversos outros psicodélicos, referem-se mais ao manejo da experiência psicodélica pelo psiconauta e ao contexto de uso.

Estes cogumelos remontam a passados imemoriais e Terence Mckenna [1946-2000] (1995) defende que os mesmos sejam um elo perdido na teoria da evolução e protagonistas no desenvolvimento de faculdades mentais como a linguagem. No norte da Argélia foi encontrado um desenho de uma forma humana coberta com uma espécie de cogumelos Psilocybe datado de 7 mil anos atrás (LUZ, 2015). Os primeiros relatos relativos a seu uso, pelo conhecimento ocidental, vêm de um índio, Tezozómoc que descreveu em espanhol, em 1598, os usos dos cogumelos na coroação de Moctezuma em 1502 – o último dirigente asteca (OTT, 2006). Um dos nomes que designavam estes cogumelos foi teonanacatl, na língua nahuatl, que significa carne dos deuses. Dois cronistas espanhóis pioneiros no conhecimento e ataque europeu às civilizações americanas, Sahagún e Benavente, julgaram que o teonanacatl provém diretamente de Lúcifer, motivo que levaria os mesmos a produzirem visões e comportamentos excêntricos (ESCOHOTADO, 1989). Tal interpretação, semelhante a que resultou no ataque e massacre a povos originários na Europa, se repetiu nas Américas e teve como consequência a perseguição e a produção de estigma da cultura originária. Em 1620, por exemplo, o Santo Ofício da Inquisição decretou que o consumo de plantas embriagantes constituía uma heresia (OTT, 2006). Embora o cristianismo tenha julgado de forma negativa os usos tradicionais de cogumelos mágicos, os mesmos remontam a períodos muito antigos e eram muito bem quistos nas sociedades originárias. Na sociedade Izapa, na região da atual Guatemala, aparecem as pedras cogumelo datando de XI a.C à VI d.C. Tais pedras cogumelo aparecem em suntuosos túmulos em esculturas de cerca de 30cm. Na cultura Maia e Tolteca pode-se observar nove pedras-cogumelo na tumba de um alto dignitário (ESCOHOTADO, 1989), além de cenas esculpidas nas quais os cogumelos se encontram no centro de cenários rituais.

A censura em relação aos cogumelos com psilocibina foi tamanha que se chegou a aventar, no início do século XX, que tais cogumelos jamais existiram (ESCOHOTADO, 1989). Um importante etnobotânico, W. E. Safford teorizou que os fungos psicodélicos jamais haviam existido e que os primeiros cronistas espanhóis haviam sido enganados; Safford acreditava que o teonanacatl seria o peiote (OTT, 2006). Foi o etnobotânico austríaco, que trabalhava no México, Blas Pablo Reko, quem questionou primeiramente a hipótese de Safford. Outro etnobotânico, Weitlaner, obteve exemplares do teonanacatl e entregou-os à Reko que, por sua vez, os enviou a autoridade na área: Richard Evans Schultes – um dos autores do clássico livro Planta de los dioses. Schultes e Reko viajaram em 1938 para Huautla de Jiménez, em Oaxaca. Apesar disso, neste momento, não provaram os cogumelos ou conheceram mais profundamente seus usos rituais. Foi apenas em 1952 que o etnomicólogo Robert Gordon Wasson e a médica e etnomicóloga Valentina Pavlovna Wasson reuniram uma série de informações sobre o teonanacatl e, em 1953, foram ao México no intuito de identifica-los e experimentar seus efeitos (OTT, 2006). No dia 29 de junho de 1955, finalmente, os Wasson conhecem a incrível Maria Sabina que aceitou realizar uma velada com eles. Tais descobertas foram apresentadas ao público e se popularizaram após o artigo “em busca do cogumelo mágico” publicado por R. G. Wasson a revista Life em 1957.

Há uma ampla gama de estudo acerca destas substâncias, desde seus usos tradicionais por povos originários até seus usos terapêuticos no campo das ciências modernas. Tais cogumelos e seus princípios ativos, como ocorreu com dezenas de outros psicodélicos, foram proibidos no século passado em níveis nacional e internacional e seus usuários, até certo ponto, perseguidos pelo stablishment. No Brasil, a psilocibina e a psilocina são proibidas (LISTA F, ANVISA), embora os cogumelos que as contém não o sejam. A novidade é que, com o renascimento psicodélico em curso na contemporaneidade, as pesquisas com estas substâncias têm avançado enormemente, incluindo pesquisas clínicas e de mapeamento cerebral. Dos anos 1950 ao início dos anos 70 as pesquisas com psicodélicas foram intensas. Não apenas fomentadas pela descoberta do LSD, mas igualmente pelo reencontro com psicodélicos esquecidos pelo tempo e pela censura.

Estudo recentes de Roland Grittiths e outros (2011), com metodologia rigorosa, demonstraram que a psilocibina produz experiências místicas. Trata-se de estudos recentes e com metodologia controlada, que comprovam o que já era conhecido em uma pesquisa realizada há quase 50 anos atrás, na pesquisa de doutorado do psiquiatra e teólogo Walter Pahnke [1931-1971], supervisionado pelo psicólogo Timothy Leary [1920-1996] em 1962. Na ocasião, Pahnke (1966) forneceu 30mg de psilocibina, a um grupo experimental de 20 estudante de teologia, em uma sexta-feira santa, no conhecido Good Friday Experiment. O pesquisador observou que o grupo experimental, isto é, o que recebeu psilocibina, experimentou em maior extensão o fenômeno místico. Em uma cena, descrita por Leary (1999), um dos participantes da pesquisa do grupo experimental ficou olhando para janela e sorrindo até expressar “Deus está em toda parte! É a glória!”. O experimento foi reanalisado, quase 30 anos depois, por Rick Doblin (1991). Os temas centrais da experiência mística, caracterizados por Stace e Hood (apud GRIFFITHS e outros, 2011), são:

· Sentimentos da unidade e interconexão com todas as pessoas e coisas;

· Senso de sagrado;

· Sentimento de paz e alegria;

· Sensação de transcender o espaço e tempo ordinários;

· Crença intuitiva que a experiência é fonte de verdade objetiva acerca da natureza da realidade;

Griffiths e outros (2011) realizaram a pesquisa com 18 participantes em cinco sessões de 8 horas. As sessões tiveram intervalo, entre si, de 1 mês. 72% dos participantes relataram experiências místicas.

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No follow up de 14 meses do estudo de Griffiths e outros (2011) foi observado que 61% dos voluntários do grupo experimental associaram as experiências a mudanças comportamentais positivas de moderadas a extremas (GRIFFITHS e outros apud JOHNSON e outros, 2014). Este resultado incrível, bastante distinto dos fármacos tradicionais, levou alguns pesquisadores a se questionarem acerca da eficácia clínica da psilocibina no tratamento de transtornos mentais, p.ex, os ligados à farmacodependência. Atualmente, um dos pontos centrais no debate acadêmico acerca da psicoterapia com psicodélicos é exatamente a importância, aparentemente central, das experiências de pico (cf. Abraham Maslow) ou místicas no resultado terapêutico. Neste sentido, ressalte-se que os resultados de Griffiths e outros (2011) foi dose-dependente e que, portanto, as maiores doses de psilocibina produziram melhores resultados. Stanislav Grof (1980) em seu LSD Psychoterapy indica a mesma observação, i.é, que experiências com doses altas de psicodélicos resultariam em melhores resultados na psicoterapia. Há de considerar, de forma cautelosa, que estes resultados são verdadeiros para o uso terapêutico de psicodélicos, em ambiente protegido, mas não tem a mesma validade para o uso lúdico. Além do uso lúdico e recreativo não ocorrerem em setting protegido, com a presença de psicoterapeuta, o usuário ainda deve lidar com adversidades diversas, p.ex, muitas vezes não sabe qual substância de fato está utilizando.

Na PARTE II deste texto aprofundarei os incríveis usos terapêuticos da psilocibina!



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