Home Lugares EUA Canabidiol até em bala de goma: o que a febre do produto...

Canabidiol até em bala de goma: o que a febre do produto nos EUA nos ensina

Três letrinhas vêm ganhando as prateleiras e os cardápios de diversos lugares cool dos Estados Unidos há mais ou menos um ano: CBD, de canabidiol. Por lá, é possível encontrar a substância extraída da maconha em configurações inusitadas, como balas de goma, chocolates, óleos, bebidas e até produtos.

Com propriedades benéficas para tratamento, por exemplo, de epilepsia e esclerose múltipla, o canabidiol é um composto presente na Cannabis sativa, a planta da maconha — mas não confunda CBD com THC, a outra molécula da erva que é responsável por dar ‘barato’.

Fonte: UOL

O CBD é a nova estrela da indústria do bem-estar: usuários relatam benefícios como controle da ansiedade e ajuda na concentração em uma época em que falar de autocuidado e saúde mental é tendência.

A farmacêutica Sâmia Regiane Lourenço Joca, professora da FCFRP-USP (Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto da USP), observa que canabidiol não é sinônimo de maconha medicinal. A cannabis possui mais de 500 substâncias, dentre as quais aproximadamente 100 são canabinóides, como o canabidiol, muitos com potencial efeito farmacológico. “O uso da planta pode ter efeitos e consequências para a saúde que são bem diferentes do uso de substâncias isoladas, como o canabidiol”, afirma.

Desmistificar e regulamentar

“Eu acho que tudo é legítimo, inclusive esse caminho do bem-estar”, defende Camila Teixeira, CEO da INDEØV, primeira empresa especializada em acesso à cannabis medicinal no Brasil. “Mas desde que haja clareza no posicionamento das marcas ou dos produtos. A comunicação precisa ser favorável à desmistificação”, pondera.

Balinhas com formato da folha de maconha, por exemplo, não ajudam no tratamento sério do tema, diz Camila, que trabalhou com o posicionamento de uma marca de produtos comestíveis nos Estados Unidos em 2013. O foco era explicar aos médicos os benefícios do CBD.

“Como você desmistifica? Com uma apresentação séria. É natural que as pessoas recebam de uma maneira diferente quando veem que você está colocando o produto dentro de uma linha, por exemplo, de bem-estar, com a qual ela compactua.” O mais importante, defende, é que o tema entre em pauta e, consequentemente, fomente mais pesquisas para compreender os efeitos do CBD.

Sâmia, da USP, concorda que o benefício desse hype dos produtos com CBD é colocar o assunto em discussão. Mas ela faz uma ressalva: o CBD não é uma substância inerte, e ainda se sabe pouco sobre ela para que o uso seja indiscriminado. “Até mesmo o uso de vitaminas segue recomendações específicas e não se pode tomar à vontade”, compara.

Margarete Brito, primeira brasileira a conseguir aval da Justiça para plantar maconha com fim medicinal em casa e coordenadora executiva da Associação Apoio a Pesquisa e Pacientes de Cannabis (Apepi), defende o modelo implementado no Uruguai. “Fica na mão do Estado, mas as pessoas têm o direito de cultivar individualmente, se filiar a clubes. É um mercado sério, com determinações para uso medicinal, recreativo e na indústria. Não tem esse capitalismo doido que tem nos Estados Unidos, em que o objetivo é vender de tudo”, explica.

Objetivos claros

Mas essa separação só vem a partir da regulamentação da substância. Por enquanto, o CBD ainda está em uma área nebulosa. Aqui no Brasil já é permitido importar o canabidiol, com prescrição médica e autorização da Anvisa, e algumas pessoas têm a permissão para plantar em casa, como é o caso de Margarete.

A história dela com o CBD começou em 2013, quando ela descobriu que a erva poderia ser o remédio para a epilepsia da filha. Hoje, ela própria também faz uso medicinal da cannabis para controlar a ansiedade. Margarete prepara o óleo a partir da planta e se tornou especialista e ativista do assunto após vivenciar os benefícios em casa. Agora, quer ajudar outras pessoas, desmistificando a cannabis e lutando pela regulamentação no país.

“O que atrasa a regulamentação é a falta de conhecimento geral. Fica parecendo cachorro correndo atrás do rabo: é proibido porque não tem informação, e não tem informação porque é proibido”, afirma.

Pesquisa

Mesmo assim, já tem muita gente empreendendo com a planta no Brasil, e um estudo da New Frontier Data (empresa de pesquisa e análise de dados do mercado da cannabis) em parceria com a The Green Hub aponta que o país tem potencial de movimentar R$ 4,7 bilhões anualmente com a flexibilização na legislação para fins medicinais, numa perspectiva de três anos após a flexibilização para o mercado já estabelecido. Nos Estados Unidos, essa indústria já emprega mais de 210 mil pessoas apenas na manipulação das plantas e vale mais de US$ 10 bilhões, segundo relatório (em inglês) da consultoria Whitney Economics.

“Melhorou muito. Hoje não temos a mesma dificuldade para trabalhar com derivados canabinóides que tínhamos dez anos atrás”, diz Sâmia. “No entanto, existe falta de conhecimento da população sobre os riscos e benefícios associados ao uso da planta, e talvez ainda preconceito”, avalia.

A farmacêutica integrou uma equipe de sete pesquisadores brasileiros e dinamarqueses que estudou os efeitos do canabidiol na redução dos sintomas relacionados à depressão em ratos. Os resultados foram positivos. “Mostramos, pela primeira vez, em 2010, que o CBD em animais tinha um perfil farmacológico semelhante a drogas antidepressivas”, relata.

Posteriormente, a equipe descobriu que o efeito que o canabidiol tinha nos animais era ainda mais rápido que os remédios já conhecidos. Quando combinados, CBD e antidepressivos poderiam ser administrados em doses menores, com potencial para que essa combinação diminua a incidência de efeitos adversos na clínica. “Mas ainda precisamos de estudos em humanos para entender se o mesmo ocorreria em pacientes deprimidos, que tipo de paciente pode se beneficiar, quais são as doses indicadas, entre outros fatores”, alerta Sâmia.

Esta reportagem da Quartz (em inglês), traz uma revisão de alguns dos estudos mais importantes sobre o tema — inclusive o da equipe de Sâmia–, indicando até que ponto conhecemos as propriedades do CBD. Spoiler: não é muito.

“Ainda não se sabe quais são as consequências do uso repetido do canabidiol, então acho perigoso que o seu uso irrestrito seja considerado seguro”, afirma Sâmia. “Talvez daqui a alguns anos a gente chegue a este ponto, mas o fato é que hoje ainda não temos essas evidências. E por isso a regulamentação adequada e o apoio a estudos que abordam o assunto são tão importantes.”

A Anvisa encerrou nesta segunda-feira (19/8) uma consulta pública sobre o tema, e deve se posicionar até o fim de 2019 sobre o cultivo da maconha para fins medicinais e científicos. A regulamentação encontra resistência no governo de Jair Bolsonaro.

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