Breves palavras sobre a Ayahuasca – Parte I [Portas da Percepção Ed. 236#]

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 5 setembro, 2013

por Fernando Beserra

Uso Histórico:

Ayahuasca é uma bebida psicoativa, com efeitos caracteristicamente enteogênicos ou psiquedélicos, consumida milenarmente por diversos povos das regiões hoje denominadas amazônicas. O termo provém do Quechua e significa em uma tradução: “vinho dos espíritos (mortos)”. Diversos termos são utilizados para referir-se a bebida, dependendo do contexto e modo de uso. Alguns exemplos são: yagé, caapi, mariri, Daime, hoasca e vegetal (SHANON, 2002). A bebida, segundo o psicólogo Shanon, se baseando em diversas pesquisas, tem sido consumida há milênios por povos do Brasil, Venezuela, Peru, Equador e Colômbia, relacionados à área da floresta Amazônica, assim como na bacia de Orinoco na Venezuela e nas regiões costeiras da Colombia, Panamá e Equardos (OTT, 2004). O uso tradicional foi diverso e central para muitos povos, servindo para curas xamânicas, para escolha para se entrar ou não em guerras (revelando o futuro) e para contato com a realidade dos espíritos. Segundo Schultes, é difícil encontrar um aspecto da vida ou da morte onde a ayahuasca não tivesse uma importância vital.

Em 1856 um funcionário do governo equatoriano Manuel Villavicencio descreveu os efeitos da ayahuasca, usada por povos indígenas da bacia do rio Napo. Seis anos depois, o botânico britânico Richard Spruce descobriu que tribos de índios tukanoa do rio Vaupés, afluente do Amazonas que transcorre entre Brasil e Colombia utilizavam um enteógeno conhecido como caapi e preparavam-no com um cipó, que deu o nome de Banisteria caapi (OTT, 2004).

Schultes, Hoffman e Ralsch (2000, p.62) no clássico livro Planta de los dioses, em um capítulo sobre “usuários de plantas alucinógenas” nos brindaram com as seguintes palavras

Na América do Sul a ayahuasca revela o mundo real e mostra que a vida diária é uma ilusão. Ayahuasca significa “enredadera da alma” em língua nativa. Aludindo a uma experiência frequente após a ingestão, diz-se que a alma se separa do corpo e se comunica com os antecessores e com as forças do mundo espiritual. Beber caapi torna possível o retorno “ao ventre materno, a fonte e a origem de todas as coisas”.

É possível que o uso religioso da ayahuasca não tenha sido privilégio por sociedades “indígenas” do Ocidente; existem hipóteses levantadas sobre seu uso através do Avesta, uma escritura considerada sagrada do Zoroastrismo. Em três capítulos do Avesta, conhecidos como Hom Yasht, que se acreditam incorporados ao corpo do livro entre 140 a.C e 50 d.C, se faz referência a uma planta embriagante e sagrada conhecida como Haoma, a qual, segundo Ott (2004) é etimologicamente idêntica ao Soma dos arios na India. É preciso destacar que existem várias versões para o Soma, dentre a destacada posição do Robert Gordon Wasson, pioneiro no estudo dos enteógenos, que o julga como o fungo Amanita muscaria. O próprio Ott vê algumas hipóteses de comparar o Soma ao Pegnum harmala como problemáticas.

Constituintes e Princípio Ativo

Mas como se constitui essa planta tão intrigante e que ocupou – e ainda ocupa – uma posição tão essencial na vida de tantos povos? Comumente a ayahuasca é constituída da junção de duas plantas: o Banisteriopsis caapi e a Psychotria viridis, também conhecidas como jagube ou miriri e chacrona, respectivamente. Por ayahuasca também é usualmente denominado apenas o primeiro destes ingredientes. O uso de outras espécies de Banisteriopsis também foi tradicional como ingrediente da ayahuasca a exemplo dos Banisteriopsis inebrians (embora haja discordância quanto a sua especificidade comparada à B.caapi), martiniana e muricata.

O principal princípio ativo da Ayahuasca é o DMT ou N,N-Dimetiltriptamina, que não geraria efeitos tão potentes se consumida oralmente de forma isolada, pois é degradada pelas enzimas de MAO (Monoamina oxidase). Sendo assim, o Banisteriopsis caapi contém alcaloides inibidores de MAO, como harmina e harmalina, que permitem que a composição da ayahuasca aja com toda sua potencia.

Demorou pelo menos meio século após o relato de Spruce sobre a ayahuasca para a mesma ser observada e estudada. Analises químicas com o Banisteriopsis, já no séc. XX, levaram ao isolamento químico da telepatina, da yajéina e da banisterina, todos na verdade o mesmo alcaloide, que ficou conhecido como harmina (OTT, 2004). A harmina foi descoberta a partir da Arruda Síria e já em 1841 o químico alemão H.Gobel conseguiu isolar um alcaloide que chamou de harmalina da Arruda s.

Já a Pegnum harmala, que contém além de IMAO, alcaloides quinzolínicos que possuem propriedades uterotônicas, foi utilizado em etnomedicina em sociedades tradicionais como abortivo (OTT, 2004).

A titulo de informação, diversos estudos demonstraram (OTT, 2004) que durante o inverno há mais conteúdo de alcaloides harmalínicos nestas plantas.

Próximos capítulos:

Na próxima semana continuaremos esta introdução a esta poção enteogênica tão impressionante que é a ayahuasca. Ainda há muito a ser dito para fazer uma introdução básica. Vamos falar um pouco sobre seus efeitos, nos debruçar sobre os aditivos clássicos deste enteógeno, que levou Ott a mapear 90 espécies vegetais distintas repartidas em 38 famílias utilizadas como aditivas da ayahuasca, das quais um quarto são plantas entoegênicas. E, finalmente, vamos abordar os principais usos nas religiões ayahuasqueiras brasileiras descritos na literatura e algumas das discussões contemporâneas sobre este enteógeno.

Um abraço enteogenico e antiproibicionista a tod@s. E aproveito para comemorar os 3 anos da coluna Portas da Percepção aqui no Hempadão. É um grande privilégio fazer parte deste grupo e poder dialogar com todos vocês.



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