Alerta: Maconha, humor e Comportamento

Ciência

hempadao 1 julho, 2019

Considerada uma droga leve, poucas vezes consideramos que a maconha pode conter alguns riscos. Hoje vamos falar sobre o efeito que a cannabis tem sobre o humor e o comportamento humano.

Muitas vezes usada de forma recreativa e gerando uma alteração no humor, a cannabis pode ter uma séria relação com problemas afetivos como transtorno bipolar e depressão. Dados a respeito desses transtornos são informações significativas para organizações de serviços de saúde mental e para a clínica cotidiana. 

por Paulo Cesar*

A euforia provocada pela cannabis é, provavelmente, o fator mais importante relacionado com a sua ampla difusão e uso. Usuários relatam que a sensação de euforia, relaxamento e despreocupação, o chamado “barato” ou “onda”, é a razão do uso. Em “não-usuários”, dependendo da variedade da cannabis, uma pequena concentração já é capaz de induzir um comportamento falante, risonho e alegre, muito parecido com àquele observado quando o álcool é utilizado “socialmente”.

Uma parcela de usuários, principalmente os iniciantes, relata reações adversas durante a intoxicação aguda, as quais podem incluir ansiedade (incluindo ataques de pânico e perda de controle), sensações corporais desagradáveis e inquietação. Pode ocorrer alternância entre sensações de euforia e disforia no mesmo indivíduo. Essa variabilidade de efeitos relatados provavelmente está relacionada com características específicas da substância (dose, modo de administração), do contexto em que é usada (em grupo ou sozinho, local de uso etc.) e do próprio usuário (características de personalidade, expectativas referentes ao uso).

Alterações psicológicas e comportamentais podem permanecer por um tempo mais longo e essas alterações incluindo sintomas afetivos como humor expansivo/eufórico e aumento de autoestima/grandiosidade, além de sintomas psicóticos (delírios e alucinações), despersonalização e desrealização, os quais geralmente se resolvem em poucos dias. 

A parada do uso crônico e intenso da substância pode levar ao aparecimento de sintomas como afeto disfórico (ansiedade, irritabilidade, tristeza), variações bruscas de humor, junto com outros sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais.

Uso de maconha e transtornos efetivos

Alguns estudos mostraram uma associação importante entre o uso de cannabis e os quadros afetivos (transtorno afetivo bipolar e depressão) nos serviços especializados de saúde mental, na assistência primária à saúde e na população como um todo. 

Muitos relatos já demonstram casos de desenvolvimento de sintomas depressivos relacionados ao uso de cannabis. No entanto foram descritos casos nos quais ocorreu o desenvolvimento de sintomas maníacos após o uso. Também há relatos da cannabis sendo usada como antidepressivo ou estabilizador do humor. Estudos sobre as relações entre uso de cannabis e depressão em populações realizando tratamento psiquiátrico sugerem que a presença de abuso/dependência está relacionada com um maior número de episódios depressivos ao longo da vida.

De um modo geral, “o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares estaria associado a uma série de efeitos negativos, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio”, avaliaram Rafael Faria e João Mazzoncini, no artigo Cannabis e Humor.

*Doutor em Neurobiologia



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