A Guerra às Drogas é Herança da Inquisição – Parte I

Portas da Percepção

hempadao 10 outubro, 2013

por Catiusia

Salve amigos! Esta semana no Portas da Percepção, inicio uma série de artigos sobre as origens da guerra às drogas, tema já abordado por aqui anteriormente, mas desta vez com uma visão mais aprofundada e histórica. O artigo original, escrito por Dan Russell, aborda como os conhecimentos seculares sobre uso das plantas (enteógenas, alimentares e médicas) está estreitamente ligado à atual proibição do uso de substâncias psicoativas. Dan Russell é um pesquisador independente e publicou recentemente o livro “Shamanism and Drug Propaganda”, onde traça as antigas e inconscientes raízes da moderna guerra às drogas.

Em tradução livre e adaptada, nas palavras de Dan Russell:

 

O estado xamânico ou estado de espírito induzido por ervas sagradas é, muitas vezes, enciclopédico, super-consciente (não subconsciente). É por isso que muitos xamãs demonstram uma memória incrível. Antes de serem escritas, A Odisséia e A Ilíada foram obras preservadas por centenas de anos apenas na memória de Homero. Um poder mnemônico (de memória), o qual poucas pessoas poderiam igualar atualmente. Em sua obra, Mnemosine (a raíz xamânica da palavra “memória” como a utilizamos hoje) é a mãe das Nove Musas. Ela possuía tanto um olhar frontal quanto lateral ou para trás, isto é, poderia “memorizar” como era o mundo em tempos passados, de modo que assim pudesse profetizar em tempos presentes.

A embriaguez ou estados inebriantes – sejam ritual, social, alimentar e médicos – são fundamentais para todas as culturas, sejam elas antigas ou modernas. As culturas tradicionais não separam os estados inebriantes ocasionados pelas ervas de qualquer uma das outras formas arcaicas de alcançar o êxtase, como a dança, musica, socialização, ritualização, o jejum, a cura, o calvário. Muito menos separam medicina e alimentos. Mas desde o nascimento da industrialização, a cultura tribal tradicional, especialmente todo o conhecimento das plantas curativas associado a ela, tem sido objeto de perseguição e escravidão. O exemplo mais clássico e bem documentado é a caça às bruxas, ou a Santa Inquisição.

Na Alemanha e na Escócia, no século XVI, as parteiras eram queimadas vivas por aliviarem a dor do parto. A razão aparente é que a dor era castigo de Deus pelo pecado original e, assim, quem interferia na vontade de Deus deveria ter sua punição. Mas a verdadeira razão por trás da inquisição era que estes xamãs ou curandeiros desafiavam o monopólio psico-médico da teocracia militar-industrial. O próprio racismo era originalmente uma forma de anti-tribalismo, impulsionado pelo valor econômico da escravidão. Hoje temos leis anti-racismo e, teoricamente, não somos abertamente racistas, mas continuamos politicamente dominados por centros de poder industrial e seus interesses. Toda doença pode não ser literalmente uma alienação da alma, mas a alienação da alma é sempre uma doença.

Na visão da igreja medieval, os demônios eram animais que tinham perdido sua floresta, projeções de pessoas tentando agarrar suas próprias raízes na terra, sua própria memória tribal. A Igreja queria exorcizar os animais demonizados, mas as curandeiras queriam trazê-los de volta à floresta. Em todas as culturas pré-industriais, medicina e religião são uma unidade inseparável, assim como "remédio" é considerado um tipo especializado de alimento, “o alimento da alma". Estes são hábitos humanos instintivos. Alimentos não podem ser proibidos. Se analgésicos são ilegais,  isso significa que a dor também é ilegal?

Por conta de seu papel biológico de criadoras e cuidadoras, as mulheres tendem a preservar o xamanismo antigo, a antiga medicina herbal, como um aspecto de sua integridade psíquica, seu patrimônio evolutivo. As curandeiras dos tempos pré-industriais preservavam esses conhecimentos botânicos com muita naturalidade e, por isso, foram alvos da Inquisição, onde as parteiras foram as maiores vítimas. A medicina euroamericana estava apenas engatinhando enquanto as curandeiras já conheciam técnicas e ervas para aliviar as dores há séculos. "Embora constantemente praticada por povos primitivos há milhares de anos, estes métodos têm sido recentemente redescobertos pelos homens instruídos, vestidos de princípio científico, e dado ao mundo como novo". A maioria das pílulas anticoncepcionais de hoje contém diosgenin, um composto encontrado no inhame selvagem mexicano, que também produz a cortisona, e era um componente básico do arsenal médico asteca.

As patentes médicas foram um epíteto dos proibicionistas. A maioria dos grandes médicos possuíam conhecimentos sofisticados sobre ervanários. As patentes de medicamentos mais populares eram infusões alcoólicas das ervas mais eficazes, como ópio, Cannabis, coca, mandrágora, beladona, meimendro, Datura, dedaleira, lobélia, Trillium, sassafrás e a lista é grande. O médico moderno é o herdeiro do farmacêutico, alquimista e curandeiros antigos. A pesquisa médica atual também procura pelo “elixir da vida”, mas talvez a diferença aqui está no interesse moderno pelo poder e status que essa descoberta poderia lhes dar.

Uma das fórmulas mágicas preparadas por curandeiras antigas incluía combinações de Datura stramonium, Atropa beladona, Hyoscyamus niger, Mandragora, Claviceps purpurea e Aconitum napellus. A poção das bruxas, que permitia às pessoas navegar pelo ar, foi uma das grandes responsáveis pela perseguição e inquisição dessas mulheres. Essas plantas (e fungos Claviceps purpurea – ergot) estão intimamente relacionadas, tendo alcalóides semelhantes como escopolamina, atropina e hiosciamina. Em 1918, a escopolamina era muito usada como sedativo cerebral e analgésico, em combinação com morfina e era tida como a uma cura para alguns tipos de loucura (!). Hoje a escopolamina é uma pré-medicação para anestesia geral, assim como a atropina (Atropa beladona).



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