A erva é nossa: devemos evitar o pacto colonial da maconha

Carta Capital, Featured, Opinião

hempadao 11 julho, 2019

A rigor, uma planta não deveria pertencer nem ao Estado, nem ao mercado, pois ela é comum

por André Barros / Ilustração Felipe Navarro

O processo mundial da legalização da maconha não tem mais volta. O capital já descobriu que a erva pode gerar bilhões de lucro.  Se examinarmos o mapa mundi, observamos que nos países mais ricos das Américas, lá no topo, Estados Unidos e Canadá, a maconha é vendida legalmente. No Canadá, está legalizada nacionalmente, para todos os fins, enquanto nos Estados Unidos, nos estados da federação em que ela é legalizada para todos os fins, ou somente para fins medicinais, vive mais da metade da população daquele país. Quer dizer, são dois países, dentre os mais ricos e industrializados do mundo, que desenvolvem legalmente esse mercado muito lucrativo. Uma planta vendida a preço de ouro!

Já no Brasil, na contramão da onda da legalização planetária, a maconha é a primeira planta proscrita na Portaria 344 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA. Quer dizer, além de ser proibido de plantar, o brasileiro é proibido de manipular a planta em seu próprio seu país. O Uruguai é o único país da América Latina onde a maconha é legalizada pelo Estado, que tem o monopólio da produção, distribuição e venda.

A rigor, uma planta não deveria pertencer nem ao Estado, nem ao mercado, pois ela é comum, ou seja, de todas e de todos. Em “Para a Crítica da Economia Política”, Karl Marx nos ensinou: “O consumo é também imediatamente produção, do mesmo modo que, na natureza, o consumo dos elementos e das substâncias químicas é produção da planta”. Como se pode, então, criminalizar uma conduta, se a produção é da própria planta?

No Brasil, tudo indica que a legalização não será estatal, pois  já chegou com o mercado. A ANVISA aprovou duas resoluções e abriu por dois meses para consulta pública da sociedade a questão da venda, só por empresas, de medicamentos de maconha. Para plantar, a agência cria uma série de exigências de segurança, que fazem até parecer que no local será plantada uma bomba atômica! Para a produção, distribuição e venda, é colocada uma série de requisitos de farmacovigilância, o que faz com que apenas sejam capazes de cumprir as empresas com experiência na indústria farmacêutica. Aliás, sob essas regras do jogo, ao nosso país tropical, só vão mesmo se adequar as grandes transnacionais, que já estão a todo o vapor na venda da maconha medicinal.

No dia seguinte à aprovação das resoluções pela ANVISA, a empresa canadense Conopy Growth anunciou o investimento de 60 milhões de reais, no mercado brasileiro da maconha medicinal, com a promessa de ampliação para 150 milhões de reais. O único medicamento de maconha vendido no Brasil é o mevatyl, para tratamento de esclerose múltipla, do qual uma caixa pode chegar a custar R$ 2.837,40! O mercado brasileiro da maconha medicinal já está sendo estudado economicamente no exterior e a estimativa de lucro é de 5 bilhões de dólares, que ainda pode aumentar muito se forem incluídos os remédios a base de maconha para dores crônicas.

Como a questão agora é de mercado, vejamos a finalidade do Sistema Brasileiro de Defesa da Concorrência: a defesa dos consumidores e a repressão aos abusos do poder econômico. Esse sistema é regido pela lei 12529/2011 e formado pelo Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica – CADE – e pela Secretaria de Acompanhamento Econômico do Ministério da Fazenda.

Em outras palavras, nosso país possui um sistema, lei e órgãos voltados para impedir abusos do poder econômico. Entretanto, do ponto de vista da concorrência, o que vem acontecendo aqui é teratológico, um verdadeiro absurdo!

Por outro lado, essa lógica reproduz nossas arraigadas origens coloniais baseadas no Plantation, sistema de comércio triangular vigente naquele período, segundo o qual a colônia vendia matéria prima para a metrópole, dela comprava – e caro! – produtos manufaturados e industrializados, somado ainda ao tráfico de negros escravizados de África.

A consciência histórica é importante para lutar contra essa dinâmica. Aqui já existem, inclusive, associações que produzem óleos medicinais de maconha a preços acessíveis. Além disso, recordamos que, no Brasil, podemos produzir maconha ao ar livre, com a luz do sol, em nossas terras, onde “tudo-o-que-se-planta-dá”.

Quando o assunto é maconha, convém recordar que o Brasil foi o primeiro país do mundo a proibir a erva, no parágrafo 7o da Lei de Posturas Municipais do Rio de Janeiro (1830), cuja sanção, evidentemente racista, criminalizava os negros escravizados “com três dias de cadeia, por consumirem o pito do pango”, que era nada menos que maconha fumada em pequenos cachimbos de bambu e argila. Se deixarmos que a legalização caminhe no rumo do grande capital, seremos, para nosso próprio prejuízo, mais uma vez, pioneiros, ao inaugurarmos o “Pacto Colonial da Maconha”: abrimos nosso mercado para empresas estrangeiras com know-how e impedimos, com tantas exigências, a criação de empresas brasileiras da maconha.

Enfim, se não levarmos o debate para a questão da concorrência, vamos acabar plantando maconha só para exportação e importar os remédios produzidos nos países ricos, mantendo nossa condição de capitalismo periférico até na maconha. Mas podemos mudar o rumo e proclamar a Independência da Planta no Brasil: Vamos à luta contra o Pacto Colonial da Maconha. A Maconha é Nossa!

    *ANDRÉ BARROS, advogado da Marcha da Maconha, mestre em ciências penais, vice-presidente a Comissão de Direitos Sociais e Interlocução Sócio Popular da OAB/RJ e membro do Instituto dos Advogados Brasileiros

********** texto publicado originalmente na Carta Capital



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