A Cannabis na Língua Portuguesa

OnJack

hempadao 5 agosto, 2013

Em português, o termo latino Cannabis originou o vocábulo "cânave" do qual derivam diversas palavras e alguns topônimos portugueses, indicadores da importância que esta cultura teve outrora entre nós. As palavras em causa in­cluem "canavear" (plantar canavês), "canaveira" (lugar onde há canavês) "canaval" (terra de canavês), "canavial" (de Cannabialis) e "canavês" (plantação de cânave).

Quanto a topônimos, destaca-se Marco de Canaveses, vila e sede de concelho do Douro Litoral, por se tratar de uma urbe importante que foi batizada a par­tir da cultura de cânhamo aí praticada. De fato, diz José Leite de Vasconcelos na Etnografia Portuguesa: "A cânave [cannabis > canabe > cânave > cânave] liga-se também o topônimo Canaveses, conformemente ao que se lê no Dice, de Mo­raes, 4a ed.: lcanavez, plantação de linho canavez. Plural Canavezes1". A propósi­to, na monografia A Vila de Canaveses (1935), Manuel de Vasconcelos escreveu: "Não vejo necessidade de ir buscar etimologias complicadas, quando o próprio nome do local é palavra portuguesa e designa, de mais a mais, uma antiga cul­tura nacional. Canaveses (…) chamam-se as plantações ou plantios de câ­nhamo. O nome de Canaveses dado a alguns lugares (…) indica a existência e a extensão, em Portugal, da cultura do cânhamo ou linho cânave ou canavese [ou alcanave], como se dizia no português antigo".

O Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa Contemporânea, da Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, regista dois vocábulos com origem em "cânhamo". São eles "canhamaço" e "calhamaço" (ambos de cânhamo + sufixo aço, significando estopa ou fio do cânhamo, ou tecido grosseiro feito com essa estopa).

 

"Se não comes a sopa, chamo o traficante"

Após décadas de propaganda, ficou bem enraizado na psique nacional o mito de que o "flagelo da droga" se deve em grande medida a abominá­veis traficantes que impingem droga a jovens inocentes. Para que conste, a versão original desta história da ca­rochinha contemporânea data de 1973, quando foi declarada guerra à droga em Portugal, e reza assim: "[Os trafi­cantes] não procuram criar uma clientela entre os adultos, mas apenas entre os adolescentes e as crianças; por isso começam a aparecer, à hora em que terminam as aulas, junto dos liceus e das escolas comerciais, estabelecem relações, oferecem ‘boleias* os que se apresentam motorizados, em­prestam discos e livros; depois um dia, como que por acaso, distribuem alguns cigarros de marijuana, mais tarde alguns comprimidos de LSD. E para esses adolescentes e essas crianças está, assim, transporta a porta do inferno. Quando voltam a pedir cigar­ros de marijuana, já esses cigarros têm um preço, mas ainda baixo. Preço, todavia, que irá subindo sempre ine­xoravelmente, à medida que no adolescente aumenta o grau de intoxi­cação. Até que vem o dia em que o adolescente já não tem com que com­prar o veneno… Então o traficante, na sua capa de bom rapaz, propõe-lhe so­ciedade: por que não há-de o jovem viciado passar também a vender a droga? Assim nunca deixaria de ter dinheiro com que a adquirir… E o cír­culo infernal alarga-se, vai-se alargan­do sempre a outros jovens e a outros mais, e de tal modo que a diferença entre o traficante e o chamado ‘con­sumidor’ é, na prática, mínima. Todo o consumidor, a menos que nade em oiro, será, amanhã, fatalmente um traficante". (Excerto de comunicação do deputado Moura Ramos à Assem­bleia Nacional, citada no Did rio de Notícias de 16 de Março de 1973.)

A indigência da retórica anti-marijuana em Portugal nos primeiros tempos da guerra ao "fla­gelo da droga" é demonstrada por esta passagem de uma obra de 1977, A Droga, Benção ou Maldição, de Jose Amado: "Apesar das variações, a maconha é sempre enganadora, mais do que outra droga qualquer, aos olhos do viciado, pes­soas inocentes ou muito amigas transformam-se imediatamente em grandes inimigos, que o espreitam para os golpear mortalmente; para não morrer atira-se a elas e se for possível mata as”

O OnJack publica, semanalmente, trechos da tradução do livro de Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears no Clothes.



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